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The Sudanese Republic and Senegal became independent of France in 1960 as the Mali Federation. When Senegal withdrew after only a few months, what formerly made up the Sudanese Republic was renamed Mali. Rule by dictatorship was brought to a close in 1991 by a military coup that ushered in a period of democratic rule. President Alpha KONARE won Mali's first two democratic presidential elections in 1992 and 1997. In keeping with Mali's two-term constitutional limit, he stepped down in 2002 and was succeeded by Amadou TOURE, who was elected to a second term in 2007 elections that were widely judged to be free and fair.


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Economy

Economy - overview
Among the 25 poorest countries in the world, Mali is a landlocked country highly dependent on gold mining and agricultural exports for revenue. The country's fiscal status fluctuates with gold and agricultural commodity prices and the harvest. Mali remains dependent on foreign aid. Economic activity is largely confined to the riverine area irrigated by the Niger River and about 65% of its land area is desert or semidesert. About 10% of the population is nomadic and about 80% of the labor force is engaged in farming and fishing. Industrial activity is concentrated on processing farm commodities. The government in 2011 completed an IMF extended credit facility program that has helped the economy grow, diversify, and attract foreign investment. Mali is developing its cotton and iron ore extraction industries to diversify foreign exchange revenue away from gold. Mali has invested in tourism but security issues are hurting the industry. Mali experienced economic growth of about 5% per year between 1996-2010.

Gdp (purchasing power parity) World Ranking: 134
$18.1 billion (2011 est.)
$17.63 billion (2010 est.)
$16.66 billion (2009 est.)
Note Data are in 2011 US dollars

Gdp (official exchange rate)
$10.6 billion (2011 est.)

Gdp - real growth rate World Ranking: 127
2.7% (2011 est.)
5.8% (2010 est.)
4.5% (2009 est.)

Gdp - per capita (ppp) World Ranking: 209
$1,100 (2011 est.)
$1,100 (2010 est.)
$1,100 (2009 est.)
Note Data are in 2011 US dollars

Gdp - composition by sector
Agriculture 38.8%
Industry 21.9%
Services 39.3% (2011 est.)

Labor force World Ranking: 99
3.241 million (2007 est.)

Labor force - by occupation
Agriculture 80%
Industry and services 20% (2005 est.)

Unemployment rate World Ranking: 178
30% (2004 est.)

Population below poverty line
36.1% (2005 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10% 3.5%
Highest 10% 25.8% (2010 est.)

Distribution of family income - gini index World Ranking: 60
40.1 (2001)
50.5 (1994)

Budget
Revenues $2.16 billion
Expenditures $2.618 billion (2011 est.)

Taxes and other revenues World Ranking: 161
20.4% of GDP (2011 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) World Ranking: 142
-4.3% of GDP (2011 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices) World Ranking: 54
2.9% (2011 est.)
1.1% (2010 est.)

Central bank discount rate World Ranking: 89
16% (31 December 2010 est.)
4.25% (31 December 2009 est.)

Commercial bank prime lending rate World Ranking: 107
9% (31 December 2011 est.)
9.2% (31 December 2010 est.)

Stock of narrow money World Ranking: 125
$2.156 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$1.88 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Stock of broad money World Ranking: 140
$2.929 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$2.617 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Stock of domestic credit World Ranking: 140
$1.669 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$1.165 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares
$NA

Agriculture - products
Cotton, millet, rice, corn, vegetables, peanuts; cattle, sheep, goats

Industries
Food processing; construction; phosphate and gold mining

Industrial production growth rate
NA%

Electricity - production World Ranking: 158
490 million kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - consumption World Ranking: 165
455.7 million kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - exports
0 kWh
Note
Mali may be providing electricity to Senegal and Mauritania (2009 est.)

Electricity - imports
0 kWh (2009 est.)

Oil - production World Ranking: 197
0 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Oil - consumption World Ranking: 165
6,000 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Oil - exports World Ranking: 176
0 bbl/day (2009 est.)

Oil - imports World Ranking: 161
4,507 bbl/day (2009 est.)

Oil - proved reserves World Ranking: 161
0 bbl (1 January 2011 est.)

Natural gas - production World Ranking: 97
0 cu m (2009 est.)

Natural gas - consumption World Ranking: 202
0 cu m (2009 est.)

Natural gas - exports World Ranking: 141
0 cu m (2009 est.)

Natural gas - imports World Ranking: 92
0 cu m (2009 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves World Ranking: 204
0 cu m (1 January 2011 est.)

Current account balance World Ranking: 123
-$1.016 billion (2011 est.)
-$973.7 million (2010 est.)

Exports World Ranking: 137
$2.253 billion (2011 est.)
$1.873 billion (2010 est.)

Exports - commodities
Cotton, gold, livestock

Exports - partners
China 32.5%, South Korea 15.2%, Indonesia 12.8%, Thailand 6.6%, Bangladesh 5.3% (2011)

Imports World Ranking: 150
$2.533 billion (2011 est.)
$2.286 billion (2010 est.)

Imports - commodities
Petroleum, machinery and equipment, construction materials, foodstuffs, textiles

Imports - partners
Senegal 15%, France 11.7%, China 8.2%, Cote dIvoire 6.3% (2011)

Debt - external World Ranking: 131
$3.192 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$2.858 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home World Ranking: 91
$2.248 billion
$2.053 billion

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad World Ranking: 85
$53.23 million
$21.74 million

Exchange rates
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar -
471.87 (2011 est.)
495.28 (2010 est.)
472.19 (2009)
493.51 (2007)

Fiscal year
Calendar year


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  Mali (Bamako):


  GPS points from Mali (Bamako)

Were Oro Mali (general)

Madini Mali (general)

Dari Mali (general)

Fintrou Mali (general)


Ouertejach Kidal

Djiguidala Koulikoro

Tyenfala Koulikoro




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