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The Sudanese Republic and Senegal became independent of France in 1960 as the Mali Federation. When Senegal withdrew after only a few months, what formerly made up the Sudanese Republic was renamed Mali. Rule by dictatorship was brought to a close in 1991 by a military coup that ushered in a period of democratic rule. President Alpha KONARE won Mali's first two democratic presidential elections in 1992 and 1997. In keeping with Mali's two-term constitutional limit, he stepped down in 2002 and was succeeded by Amadou TOURE, who was elected to a second term in 2007 elections that were widely judged to be free and fair.


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Geography

Location
Interior Western Africa, southwest of Algeria, north of Guinea, Cote d'Ivoire, and Burkina Faso, west of Niger

Geographic coordinates
17 00 N, 4 00 W

Map references
Africa

Area World Ranking: 24
Total 1,240,192 sq km
Land 1,220,190 sq km
Water 20,002 sq km

Area - comparative
Slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries
Total 7,243 km
Border countries
Algeria 1,376 km, Burkina Faso 1,000 km, Guinea 858 km, Cote d'Ivoire 532 km, Mauritania 2,237 km, Niger 821 km, Senegal 419 km

Coastline
0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims
None (landlocked)

Climate
Subtropical to arid; hot and dry (February to June); rainy, humid, and mild (June to November); cool and dry (November to February)

Terrain
Mostly flat to rolling northern plains covered by sand; savanna in south, rugged hills in northeast

Elevation extremes
Lowest point Senegal River 23 m
Highest point Hombori Tondo 1,155 m

Natural resources
Gold, phosphates, kaolin, salt, limestone, uranium, gypsum, granite, hydropower
Note
Bauxite, iron ore, manganese, tin, and copper deposits are known but not exploited

Land use
Arable land 3.76%
Permanent crops 0.03%
Other 96.21% (2005)

Irrigated land
2,360 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources
100 cu km (2001)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)
Total 6.55 cu km/yr (9%/1%/90%)
Per capita 484 cu m/yr (2000)

Natural hazards
Hot, dust-laden harmattan haze common during dry seasons; recurring droughts; occasional Niger River flooding

Environment - current issues
Deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; inadequate supplies of potable water; poaching

Environment - international agreements
Party to
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands, Whaling
Signed, but not ratified
None of the selected agreements

Geography - note
Landlocked; divided into three natural zones: the southern, cultivated Sudanese; the central, semiarid Sahelian; and the northern, arid Saharan


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  Mali (Bamako):


  GPS points from Mali (Bamako)

Konobougou Koulikoro

Wolokoro Mali (general)

Tombala Region De Koulikoro

Serimabougou Mali (general)

Kermatogo Mali (general)

Dioni Mali (general)

Keringo Mali (general)

Boul Mali (general)




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