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The Sudanese Republic and Senegal became independent of France in 1960 as the Mali Federation. When Senegal withdrew after only a few months, what formerly made up the Sudanese Republic was renamed Mali. Rule by dictatorship was brought to a close in 1991 by a military coup that ushered in a period of democratic rule. President Alpha KONARE won Mali's first two democratic presidential elections in 1992 and 1997. In keeping with Mali's two-term constitutional limit, he stepped down in 2002 and was succeeded by Amadou TOURE, who was elected to a second term in 2007 elections that were widely judged to be free and fair.


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Government

Country name
Conventional long form Republic of Mali
Conventional short form Mali
Local long form Republique de Mali
Local short form Mali
Former
French Sudan and Sudanese Republic

Government type
Republic

Capital
Name Bamako
Geographic coordinates 12 39 N, 8 00 W
Time difference
UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions
8 regions (regions, singular - region), 1 district*; District de Bamako*, Gao, Kayes, Kidal, Koulikoro, Mopti, Segou, Sikasso, Tombouctou (Timbuktu)

Independence
22 September 1960 (from France)

Constitution
Adopted 12 January 1992

Legal system
Civil law system based on the French civil law model and influenced by customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Court

International law organization participation
Has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Suffrage
18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state
[Interim] President Dioncounda TRAORE (since 12 April 2012)
Note
In the aftermath of the March 2012 coup, deposed President TOURE, in a brokered deal, resigned to facilitate the naming of an interim president and transition back toward democratic rule
Head of government
[Interim] Prime Minister Cheick Modibo DIARRA (since 17 April 2012)
Cabinet
Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
Elections
President elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 29 April 2007 (next to be held on 29 April 2012); prime minister appointed by the president
Election results
Amadou Toumani TOURE reelected president; percent of vote - Amadou Toumani TOURE 71.2%, Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA 19.2%, other 9.6%

Legislative branch
Unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (147 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
Elections
Last held on 1 and 22 July 2007 (next to be held in July 2012)
Election results
Percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ADP coalition 113 (ADEMA 51, URD 34, MPR 8, CNID 7, UDD 3, and other 10), FDR coalition 15 (RPM 11, PARENA 4), SADI 4, independent 15

Judicial branch
Supreme Court or Cour Supreme

Political parties and leaders
African Solidarity for Democracy and Independence or SADI [Oumar MARIKO, secretary general]; Alliance for Democracy or ADEMA [Diounconda TRAORE]; Alliance for Democracy and Progress or ADP (a coalition of political parties including ADEMA and URD formed in December 2006 to support the presidential candidacy of Amadou TOURE); Alliance for Democratic Change (political group comprised mainly of Tuareg from Mali's northern region); Convergence 2007 [Soumeylou Boubeye MAIGA]; Front for Democracy and the Republic or FDR (a coalition of political parties including RPM and PARENA formed to oppose the presidential candidacy of Amadou TOURE); National Congress for Democratic Initiative or CNID [Mountaga TALL]; Party for Democracy and Progress or PDP [Mady KONATE]; Party for National Renewal or PARENA [Tiebile DRAME]; Patriotic Movement for Renewal or MPR [Choguel MAIGA]; Rally for Democracy and Labor or RDT [Amadou Ali NIANGADOU]; Rally for Mali or RPM [Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA]; Sudanese Union/African Democratic Rally or US/RDA [Mamadou Basir GOLOGO]; Union for Democracy and Development or UDD [Moussa Balla COULIBALY]; Union for Republic and Democracy or URD [Soumaila CISSE]

Political pressure groups and leaders
Other
The army; Islamic authorities; rebels in the northern region; state-run cotton company CMDT; tuaregs

International organization participation
ACP, AfDB, AU (suspended), CD, ECOWAS, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the us
Chief of mission
Ambassador Al Maamoun Baba Lamine KEITA
Chancery
2130 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
Telephone [1] (202) 332-2249, 939-8950
FAX [1] (202) 332-6603

Diplomatic representation from the us
Chief of mission Ambassador Mary Beth LEONARD
Embassy
Located just off the Roi Bin Fahad Aziz Bridge just west of the Bamako central district
Mailing address
ACI 2000, Rue 243, Porte 297, Bamako
Telephone [223] 270-2300
FAX [223] 270-2479

Flag description
Three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and red
Note
Uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia; the colors from left to right are the same as those of neighboring Senegal (which has an additional green central star) and the reverse of those on the flag of neighboring Guinea

National anthem
Name "Le Mali" (Mali)
Lyrics/music
Seydou Badian KOUYATE/Banzoumana SISSOKO
Note
Adopted 1962; the anthem is also known as "Pour L'Afrique et pour toi, Mali" (For Africa and for You, Mali) and "A ton appel Mali" (At Your Call, Mali)


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  Mali (Bamako):


  GPS points from Mali (Bamako)

Mangabera Mali (general)


I-n-kebarat Mali (general)

Arraten Kidal

Niangasso Mali (general)

I-n-orhi Mali (general)

M'bassa Koulikoro

I-n-imania Kidal




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