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The Sudanese Republic and Senegal became independent of France in 1960 as the Mali Federation. When Senegal withdrew after only a few months, what formerly made up the Sudanese Republic was renamed Mali. Rule by dictatorship was brought to a close in 1991 by a military coup that ushered in a period of democratic rule. President Alpha KONARE won Mali's first two democratic presidential elections in 1992 and 1997. In keeping with Mali's two-term constitutional limit, he stepped down in 2002 and was succeeded by Amadou TOURE, who was elected to a second term in 2007 elections that were widely judged to be free and fair.


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People And Society

Nationality
Noun Malian(s)
Adjective Malian

Ethnic groups
Mande 50% (Bambara, Malinke, Soninke), Peul 17%, Voltaic 12%, Songhai 6%, Tuareg and Moor 10%, other 5%

Languages
French (official), Bambara 80%, numerous African languages

Religions
Muslim 90%, Christian 1%, indigenous beliefs 9%

Population World Ranking: 66
15,494,466 (July 2012 est.)

Age structure
0-14 years
47.3% (male 3,372,717/female 3,325,188)
15-64 years
49.7% (male 3,438,687/female 3,605,143)
65 years and over
3% (male 199,862/female 218,307) (2011 est.)

Median age
Total 16.4 years
Male 16 years
Female 16.7 years (2012 est.)

Population growth rate World Ranking: 22
2.613% (2012 est.)

Birth rate World Ranking: 3
45.15 births/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Death rate World Ranking: 12
13.94 deaths/1,000 population (July 2012 est.)

Net migration rate World Ranking: 191
-5.08 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Urbanization
Urban population 36% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization
4.4% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major cities - population
BAMAKO (capital) 1.628 million (2009)

Sex ratio
At birth 1.03 male(s)/female
Under 15 years 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over 0.91 male(s)/female
Total population
0.98 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Maternal mortality rate World Ranking: 16
540 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)

Infant mortality rate World Ranking: 3
Total
109.08 deaths/1,000 live births
Male
115.85 deaths/1,000 live births
Female
102.11 deaths/1,000 live births (2012 est.)

Life expectancy at birth World Ranking: 206
Total population 53.06 years
Male 51.43 years
Female 54.73 years (2012 est.)

Total fertility rate World Ranking: 2
6.35 children born/woman (2012 est.)

Health expenditures World Ranking: 65
7.5% of GDP (2009)

Physicians density
0.049 physicians/1,000 population (2008)

Hospital bed density
0.57 beds/1,000 population (2008)

Hiv/aids - adult prevalence rate World Ranking: 47
1% (2009 est.)

Hiv/aids - people living with hiv/aids World Ranking: 47
76,000 (2009 est.)

Hiv/aids - deaths World Ranking: 41
4,400 (2009 est.)

Major infectious diseases
Degree of risk Very high
Food or waterborne diseases
Bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
Vectorborne disease Malaria
Water contact disease Schistosomiasis
Respiratory disease
Meningococcal meningitis (2009)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight World Ranking: 22
27.9% (2006)

Education expenditures World Ranking: 86
4.4% of GDP (2009)

Literacy
Definition
Age 15 and over can read and write
Total population 31.1%
Male 43.4%
Female 20.3% (2010 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
Total 8 years
Male 9 years
Female 7 years (2009)


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  Mali (Bamako):


  GPS points from Mali (Bamako)

Diadia Mali (general)

Gouana Mali (general)

Saobongo Mali (general)

Falani Koulikoro

Kaniera Mali (general)

Ntomikoro District De Bamako

Dyeli Mali (general)

Lac Tenda Mali (general)




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