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The site of advanced Amerindian civilizations - including the Olmec, Toltec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec, Maya, and Aztec - Mexico was conquered and colonized by Spain in the early 16th century. Administered as the Viceroyalty of New Spain for three centuries, it achieved its independence early in the 19th century. The global financial crisis beginning in late 2008 caused a massive economic downturn the following year, although growth returned quickly in 2010. Ongoing economic and social concerns include low real wages, underemployment for a large segment of the population, inequitable income distribution, and few advancement opportunities for the largely Amerindian population in the impoverished southern states. The elections held in 2000 marked the first time since the 1910 Mexican Revolution that an opposition candidate - Vicente FOX of the National Action Party (PAN) - defeated the party in government, the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI). He was succeeded in 2006 by another PAN candidate Felipe CALDERON. National elections, including the presidential election, are scheduled for 1 July 2012. Since 2007, Mexico's powerful drug-trafficking organizations have engaged in bloody feuding, resulting in tens of thousands of drug-related homicides.


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Government

Country name
Conventional long form United Mexican States
Conventional short form Mexico
Local long form Estados Unidos Mexicanos
Local short form Mexico

Government type
Federal republic

Capital
Name Mexico City (Distrito Federal)
Geographic coordinates 19 26 N, 99 08 W
Time difference
UTC-6 (1 hour behind Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Daylight saving time
+1hr, begins first Sunday in April; ends last Sunday in October
Note
Mexico is divided into three time zones

Administrative divisions
31 states (estados, singular - estado) and 1 federal district* (distrito federal); Aguascalientes, Baja California, Baja California Sur, Campeche, Chiapas, Chihuahua, Coahuila de Zaragoza, Colima, Distrito Federal*, Durango, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico, Michoacan de Ocampo, Morelos, Nayarit, Nuevo Leon, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro de Arteaga, Quintana Roo, San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Tlaxcala, Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave (Veracruz), Yucatan, Zacatecas

Independence
16 September 1810 (declared); 27 September 1821 (recognized by Spain)

Constitution
5 February 1917

Legal system
Civil law system with US constitutional law theory influence; judicial review of legislative acts

International law organization participation
Accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Suffrage
18 years of age; universal and compulsory (but not enforced)

Executive branch
Chief of state
President Felipe de Jesus CALDERON Hinojosa (since 1 December 2006); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
Head of government
President Felipe de Jesus CALDERON Hinojosa (since 1 December 2006)
Cabinet
Cabinet appointed by the president; note - appointment of attorney general, the head of the Bank of Mexico, and senior treasury officials require consent of the Senate
Elections
President elected by popular vote for a single six-year term; election last held on 1 July 2012 (next to be held July 2018)
Election results
Enrique PENA NIETO elected president; percent of vote - Enrique PENA NIETO (PRI) 38.21%, Andres Manuel LOPEZ OBRADOR (PRD) 31.59%, Josefina Eugenia VAZQUEZ Mota (PAN) 25.41%, other 4.79%; note - official results pending; Enrique PENA NIETO is expected to take office 1 December 2012

Legislative branch
Bicameral National Congress or Congreso de la Union consists of the Senate or Camara de Senadores (128 seats; 96 members elected by popular vote to serve six-year terms, and 32 seats allocated on the basis of each party's popular vote) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (500 seats; 300 members are elected by popular vote; remaining 200 members are allocated on the basis of each party's popular vote; members to serve three-year terms)
Elections
Senate - last held on 1 July 2012 for all of the seats (next to be held on 1 July 2018); Chamber of Deputies - last held on 1 July 2012 (next to be held on 5 July 2015)
Election results
Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PRI 52, PAN 38, PRD 22, PVEM 9, PT 4, Movimiento Ciudadano 2, PANAL 1; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PRI 207, PAN 114, PRD 101, PVEM 33, PT 19, Movimiento Ciudadano 16, PANAL 10; note - official results pending

Judicial branch
Supreme Court of Justice or Suprema Corte de Justicia de la Nacion (justices or ministros are appointed by the president with consent of the Senate)

Political parties and leaders
Citizen's Movement (Movimiento Ciudadano) [Luis WALTON Aburto]; Institutional Revolutionary Party (Partido Revolucionario Institucional) or PRI [Pedro Joaquin COLDWELL]; Labor Party (Partido del Trabajo) or PT [Alberto ANAYA Gutierrez]; Mexican Green Ecological Party (Partido Verde Ecologista de Mexico) or PVEM [Jorge Emilio GONZALEZ Martinez]; National Action Party (Partido Accion Nacional) or PAN [Gustavo MADERO Munoz]; New Alliance Party (Partido Nueva Alianza) or PNA/PANAL [Luis CASTRO Obregon]; Party of the Democratic Revolution (Partido de la Revolucion Democratica) or PRD [Jesus ZAMBRANO Grijalva]

Political pressure groups and leaders
Businessmen's Coordinating Council or CCE; Confederation of Employers of the Mexican Republic or COPARMEX; Confederation of Industrial Chambers or CONCAMIN; Confederation of Mexican Workers or CTM; Confederation of National Chambers of Commerce or CONCANACO; Coordinator for Foreign Trade Business Organizations or COECE; Federation of Unions Providing Goods and Services or FESEBES; National Chamber of Transformation Industries or CANACINTRA; National Peasant Confederation or CNC; National Small Business Chamber or CANACOPE; National Syndicate of Education Workers or SNTE; National Union of Workers or UNT; Popular Assembly of the People of Oaxaca or APPO; Roman Catholic Church

International organization participation
APEC, BCIE, BIS, CAN (observer), Caricom (observer), CD, CDB, CE (observer), CELAC, CSN (observer), EBRD, FAO, FATF, G-20, G-3, G-15, G-24, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAES, LAIA, MIGA, NAFTA, NAM (observer), NEA, OAS, OECD, OPANAL, OPCW, Paris Club (associate), PCA, SICA (observer), UN, UNASUR (observer), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina (observer), UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the us
Chief of mission
Ambassador Arturo SARUKHAN Casamitjana
Chancery
1911 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20006
Telephone [1] (202) 728-1600
FAX [1] (202) 728-1698
Consulate(s) general
Atlanta, Austin, Boston, Chicago, Dallas, Denver, El Paso, Houston, Laredo (Texas), Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Nogales (Arizona), Phoenix, Sacramento, San Antonio, San Diego, San Francisco, San Jose, San Juan (Puerto Rico)
Consulate(s)
Albuquerque, Anchorage (Alaska), Boise (Idaho), Brownsville (Texas), Calexico (California), Del Rio (Texas), Detroit, Douglas (Arizona), Eagle Pass (Texas), Fresno (California), Indianapolis (Indiana), Kansas City (Missouri), Las Vegas, Little Rock (Arkansas), McAllen (Texas), New Orleans, Omaha, Orlando, Oxnard (California), Philadelphia, Portland (Oregon), Presidio (Texas), Raleigh (North Carolina), Saint Paul, Salt Lake City, San Bernardino, Santa Ana (California), Seattle, Tucson, Washington DC, Yuma (Arizona); note - Washington DC Consular Section located in a separate building from the Mexican Embassy and has jurisdiction over DC, parts of Virginia, Maryland, and West Virginia

Diplomatic representation from the us
Chief of mission Ambassador Earl Anthony WAYNE
Embassy
Paseo de la Reforma 305, Colonia Cuauhtemoc, 06500 Mexico, Distrito Federal
Mailing address
P. O. Box 9000, Brownsville, TX 78520-9000
Telephone [52] (55) 5080-2000
FAX [52] (55) 5511-9980
Consulate(s) general
Ciudad Juarez, Guadalajara, Hermosillo, Matamoros, Merida, Monterrey, Nogales, Nuevo Laredo, Tijuana

Flag description
Three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and red; Mexico's coat of arms (an eagle with a snake in its beak perched on a cactus) is centered in the white band; green signifies hope, joy, and love; white represents peace and honesty; red stands for hardiness, bravery, strength, and valor; the coat of arms is derived from a legend that the wandering Aztec people were to settle at a location where they would see an eagle on a cactus eating a snake; the city they founded, Tenochtitlan, is now Mexico City
Note
Similar to the flag of Italy, which is shorter, uses lighter shades of red and green, and does not have anything in its white band

National symbol(s)
Golden eagle

National anthem
Name
"Himno Nacional Mexicano" (National Anthem of Mexico)
Lyrics/music
Francisco Gonzalez BOCANEGRA/Jaime Nuno ROCA
Note
Adopted 1943, in use since 1854; the anthem is also known as "Mexicanos, al grito de Guerra" (Mexicans, to the War Cry); according to tradition, Francisco Gonzalez BOCANEGRA, an accomplished poet, was uninterested in submitting lyrics to a national anthem contest; his fiancee locked him in a room and refused to release him until the lyrics were completed


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  Mexico (Mexico City):


  GPS points from Mexico (Mexico City)

Rancho La Pitaya Nuevo Leon

Parada De Luna San Luis Potosi


Canoas Guanajuato

Buenavista Sonora

Cuevecillas Durango

El Colorado Zacatecas

Los Martinez Zacatecas




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