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The site of advanced Amerindian civilizations - including the Olmec, Toltec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec, Maya, and Aztec - Mexico was conquered and colonized by Spain in the early 16th century. Administered as the Viceroyalty of New Spain for three centuries, it achieved its independence early in the 19th century. The global financial crisis beginning in late 2008 caused a massive economic downturn the following year, although growth returned quickly in 2010. Ongoing economic and social concerns include low real wages, underemployment for a large segment of the population, inequitable income distribution, and few advancement opportunities for the largely Amerindian population in the impoverished southern states. The elections held in 2000 marked the first time since the 1910 Mexican Revolution that an opposition candidate - Vicente FOX of the National Action Party (PAN) - defeated the party in government, the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI). He was succeeded in 2006 by another PAN candidate Felipe CALDERON. National elections, including the presidential election, are scheduled for 1 July 2012. Since 2007, Mexico's powerful drug-trafficking organizations have engaged in bloody feuding, resulting in tens of thousands of drug-related homicides.


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Military

Military branches
Secretariat of National Defense (Secretaria de Defensa Nacional, Sedena): Army (Ejercito), Mexican Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Mexicana, FAM); Secretariat of the Navy (Secretaria de Marina, Semar): Mexican Navy (Armada de Mexico (ARM), includes Naval Air Force (FAN), Mexican Marine Corps (Cuerpo de Infanteria de Marina, Mexmar or CIM)) (2011)

Military service age and obligation
18 years of age for compulsory military service, conscript service obligation - 12 months; 16 years of age with consent for voluntary enlistment; conscripts serve only in the Army; Navy and Air Force service is all voluntary; women are eligible for voluntary military service (2007)

Manpower available for military service
Males age 16-49 28,815,506
Females age 16-49 30,363,558 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service
Males age 16-49 23,239,866
Females age 16-49 25,642,549 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually
Male 1,105,371
Female 1,067,007 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures World Ranking: 159
0.5% of GDP (2006 est.)


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  Mexico (Mexico City):


  GPS points from Mexico (Mexico City)

Rancho Carbonera Tamaulipas

Torreon Sonora

La Animas Guerrero

Mesa Arenosa Sonora

El Salitrillo Jalisco

Cienega De Abajo Guerrero


Amatlan De Jora Nayarit




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