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People and Society






The site of advanced Amerindian civilizations - including the Olmec, Toltec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec, Maya, and Aztec - Mexico was conquered and colonized by Spain in the early 16th century. Administered as the Viceroyalty of New Spain for three centuries, it achieved its independence early in the 19th century. The global financial crisis beginning in late 2008 caused a massive economic downturn the following year, although growth returned quickly in 2010. Ongoing economic and social concerns include low real wages, underemployment for a large segment of the population, inequitable income distribution, and few advancement opportunities for the largely Amerindian population in the impoverished southern states. The elections held in 2000 marked the first time since the 1910 Mexican Revolution that an opposition candidate - Vicente FOX of the National Action Party (PAN) - defeated the party in government, the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI). He was succeeded in 2006 by another PAN candidate Felipe CALDERON. National elections, including the presidential election, are scheduled for 1 July 2012. Since 2007, Mexico's powerful drug-trafficking organizations have engaged in bloody feuding, resulting in tens of thousands of drug-related homicides.


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People And Society

Noun Mexican(s)
Adjective Mexican

Ethnic groups
Mestizo (Amerindian-Spanish) 60%, Amerindian or predominantly Amerindian 30%, white 9%, other 1%

Spanish only 92.7%, Spanish and indigenous languages 5.7%, indigenous only 0.8%, unspecified 0.8%
Indigenous languages include various Mayan, Nahuatl, and other regional languages (2005)

Roman Catholic 76.5%, Protestant 5.2% (Pentecostal 1.4%, other 3.8%), Jehovah's Witnesses 1.1%, other 0.3%, unspecified 13.8%, none 3.1% (2000 census)

Population World Ranking: 11
114,975,406 (July 2012 est.)

Age structure
0-14 years
28.2% (male 16,395,974/female 15,714,182)
15-64 years
65.2% (male 35,842,495/female 38,309,528)
65 years and over
6.6% (male 3,348,495/female 4,113,552) (2011 est.)

Median age
Total 27.4 years
Male 26.3 years
Female 28.5 years (2012 est.)

Population growth rate World Ranking: 109
1.086% (2012 est.)

Birth rate World Ranking: 102
18.87 births/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Death rate World Ranking: 188
4.9 deaths/1,000 population (July 2012 est.)

Net migration rate World Ranking: 176
-3.11 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Urban population 78% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization
1.2% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Mexico City is the second-largest urban agglomeration in the Western Hemisphere, after Sao Paulo (Brazil), but before New York-Newark (US)

Major cities - population
MEXICO CITY (capital) 19.319 million; Guadalajara 4.338 million; Monterrey 3.838 million; Puebla 2.278 million; Tijuana 1.629 million (2009)

Sex ratio
At birth 1.05 male(s)/female
Under 15 years 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years 0.94 male(s)/female
65 years and over 0.81 male(s)/female
Total population
0.96 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Maternal mortality rate World Ranking: 108
50 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)

Infant mortality rate World Ranking: 104
Total 16.77 deaths/1,000 live births
Male 18.58 deaths/1,000 live births
14.86 deaths/1,000 live births (2012 est.)

Life expectancy at birth World Ranking: 72
Total population 76.66 years
Male 73.84 years
Female 79.63 years (2012 est.)

Total fertility rate World Ranking: 99
2.27 children born/woman (2012 est.)

Health expenditures World Ranking: 3
13.8% of GDP (2009)

Physicians density
2.893 physicians/1,000 population (2004)

Hospital bed density
1.6 beds/1,000 population (2008)

Hiv/aids - adult prevalence rate World Ranking: 79
0.3% (2009 est.)

Hiv/aids - people living with hiv/aids World Ranking: 25
220,000 (2009 est.)

Hiv/aids - deaths

Major infectious diseases
Degree of risk Intermediate
Food or waterborne diseases
Bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
Vectorborne disease Dengue fever
Water contact disease Leptospirosis (2009)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate World Ranking: 13
23.6% (2000)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight World Ranking: 100
3.4% (2006)

Education expenditures World Ranking: 69
4.8% of GDP (2007)

Age 15 and over can read and write
Total population 86.1%
Male 86.9%
Female 85.3% (2005 Census)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
Total 14 years
Male 14 years
Female 14 years (2008)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 World Ranking: 102
Total 10%
Male 9.7%
Female 10.6% (2009)


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  Mexico (Mexico City):

  GPS points from Mexico (Mexico City)

Estancia Chihuahua

San Vicente Coahuila

Ziparapio Michoacan

El Alamo Coahuila

Hormiguero Hidalgo
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