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Part of Romania during the interwar period, Moldova was incorporated into the Soviet Union at the close of World War II. Although the country has been independent from the USSR since 1991, Russian forces have remained on Moldovan territory east of the Dniester River supporting a Transnistrian separatist region with a Slavic majority population of mostly Ukrainians and Russians. One of the poorest nations in Europe, Moldova became the first former Soviet state to elect a Communist, Vladimir VORONIN, as its president in 2001. VORONIN served as Moldova's president until he resigned in September 2009, following the opposition's gain of a narrow majority in July parliamentary elections and the Communist Party's (PCRM) subsequent inability to attract the three-fifths of parliamentary votes required to elect a president. Moldova's four opposition parties formed a new coalition, the Alliance for European Integration (AEI), which has acted as Moldova's governing coalition since. Moldova experienced significant political uncertainty between 2009 and early 2012, holding three general elections and numerous presidential ballots in parliament, all of which failed to secure a president. Following November 2010 parliamentary elections, a reconstituted AEI-coalition consisting of the Liberal Democratic Party, the Liberal Party, and the Democratic Party formed a government, and in March 2012 were finally able to elect an independent as president.


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People And Society

Nationality
Noun Moldovan(s)
Adjective Moldovan

Ethnic groups
Moldovan/Romanian 78.2%, Ukrainian 8.4%, Russian 5.8%, Gagauz 4.4%, Bulgarian 1.9%, other 1.3% (2004 census)
Note
Internal disputes with ethnic Slavs in the Transnistrian region

Languages
Moldovan (official, virtually the same as the Romanian language), Russian, Gagauz (a Turkish dialect)

Religions
Eastern Orthodox 98%, Jewish 1.5%, Baptist and other 0.5% (2000)

Population World Ranking: 130
3,656,843 (July 2012 est.)

Age structure
0-14 years
15.5% (male 344,101/female 325,995)
15-64 years
74% (male 1,550,386/female 1,643,108)
65 years and over
10.4% (male 164,512/female 286,275) (2011 est.)

Median age
Total 35.2 years
Male 33.3 years
Female 37.2 years (2012 est.)

Population growth rate World Ranking: 228
-1.014% (2012 est.)

Birth rate World Ranking: 156
12.5 births/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Death rate World Ranking: 24
12.62 deaths/1,000 population (July 2012 est.)

Net migration rate World Ranking: 208
-10.02 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Urbanization
Urban population 47% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization
0.9% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major cities - population
CHISINAU (capital) 650,000 (2009)

Sex ratio
At birth 1.06 male(s)/female
Under 15 years 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over 0.6 male(s)/female
Total population
0.94 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Maternal mortality rate World Ranking: 114
41 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)

Infant mortality rate World Ranking: 126
Total 13.65 deaths/1,000 live births
Male 15.59 deaths/1,000 live births
Female
11.58 deaths/1,000 live births (2012 est.)

Life expectancy at birth World Ranking: 149
Total population 69.51 years
Male 65.64 years
Female 73.63 years (2012 est.)

Total fertility rate World Ranking: 181
1.55 children born/woman (2012 est.)

Health expenditures World Ranking: 11
11.9% of GDP (2009)

Physicians density
2.668 physicians/1,000 population (2007)

Hospital bed density
6.12 beds/1,000 population (2007)

Hiv/aids - adult prevalence rate World Ranking: 78
0.4% (2009 est.)

Hiv/aids - people living with hiv/aids World Ranking: 93
12,000 (2009 est.)

Hiv/aids - deaths World Ranking: 74
Fewer than 1,000 (2009 est.)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight World Ranking: 104
3.2% (2005)

Education expenditures World Ranking: 7
9.6% of GDP (2009)

Literacy
Definition
Age 15 and over can read and write
Total population 98.5%
Male 99.1%
Female 98.1% (2010 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
Total 12 years
Male 12 years
Female 12 years (2009)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 World Ranking: 73
Total 15.4%
Male 15.8%
Female 14.9% (2009)


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  Moldova (Chisinau):


  GPS points from Moldova (Chisinau)

Oleneshty Stefan-voda

Molokisz Stinga Nistrului

Dimitrovca Cimislia

Gluboaka Orhei

Gremeshti Briceni

Pogorna Soldanesti

Octeabriscoe Floresti

Cioropcani Ungheni




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