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The Mongols gained fame in the 13th century when under Chinggis KHAAN they established a huge Eurasian empire through conquest. After his death the empire was divided into several powerful Mongol states, but these broke apart in the 14th century. The Mongols eventually retired to their original steppe homelands and in the late 17th century came under Chinese rule. Mongolia won its independence in 1921 with Soviet backing and a Communist regime was installed in 1924. The modern country of Mongolia, however, represents only part of the Mongols' historical homeland; more ethnic Mongolians live in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in the People's Republic of China than in Mongolia. Following a peaceful democratic revolution, the ex-Communist Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP) won elections in 1990 and 1992, but was defeated by the Democratic Union Coalition (DUC) in the 1996 parliamentary election. The MPRP won an overwhelming majority in the 2000 parliamentary election, but the party lost seats in the 2004 election and shared power with democratic coalition parties from 2004-08. The MPRP regained a solid majority in the 2008 parliamentary elections but nevertheless formed a coalition government with the Democratic Party that lasted until January 2012. In 2010 the MPRP voted to retake the name of the Mongolian People's Party (MPP), a name it used in the early 1920s.


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Communications

Telephones - main lines in use World Ranking: 126
193,200 (2009)

Telephones - mobile cellular World Ranking: 129
2.51 million (2009)

Telephone system
General assessment
Network is improving with international direct dialing available in many areas; a fiber-optic network has been installed that is improving broadband and communication services between major urban centers with multiple companies providing inter-city fiber-optic cable services
Domestic
Very low fixed-line teledensity; there are multiple mobile- cellular providers and subscribership is increasing
International
Country code - 976; satellite earth stations - 7

Broadcast media
Following a law passed in 2005, Mongolia's state-run radio and TV provider converted to a public service provider; also available are private radio and TV broadcasters, as well as multi-channel satellite and cable TV providers; more than 100 radio stations, including some 20 via repeaters for the public broadcaster; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available (2008)

Internet country code
.mn

Internet hosts World Ranking: 116
20,865 (2010)

Internet users World Ranking: 125
330,000 (2008)


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  Mongolia (Ulaanbaatar):


  GPS points from Mongolia (Ulaanbaatar)

Hongshan Tou Mongolia (general)

Dolotoyn Khuduk East Gobi Aymag

Tugurigiin Khure Govi-altay Aymag

Dashaagiin Nuur Middle Govi

Hurhuru Gol Central Aymag

Man-ch"u-k"o Tz"u Suhbaatar Aymag

Taryatuyn Sume Central Aymag

Ushaiin Dzag Oboo East Gobi Aymag




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