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People and Society






The Mongols gained fame in the 13th century when under Chinggis KHAAN they established a huge Eurasian empire through conquest. After his death the empire was divided into several powerful Mongol states, but these broke apart in the 14th century. The Mongols eventually retired to their original steppe homelands and in the late 17th century came under Chinese rule. Mongolia won its independence in 1921 with Soviet backing and a Communist regime was installed in 1924. The modern country of Mongolia, however, represents only part of the Mongols' historical homeland; more ethnic Mongolians live in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in the People's Republic of China than in Mongolia. Following a peaceful democratic revolution, the ex-Communist Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP) won elections in 1990 and 1992, but was defeated by the Democratic Union Coalition (DUC) in the 1996 parliamentary election. The MPRP won an overwhelming majority in the 2000 parliamentary election, but the party lost seats in the 2004 election and shared power with democratic coalition parties from 2004-08. The MPRP regained a solid majority in the 2008 parliamentary elections but nevertheless formed a coalition government with the Democratic Party that lasted until January 2012. In 2010 the MPRP voted to retake the name of the Mongolian People's Party (MPP), a name it used in the early 1920s.


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People And Society

Noun Mongolian(s)
Adjective Mongolian

Ethnic groups
Mongol (mostly Khalkha) 94.9%, Turkic (mostly Kazakh) 5%, other (including Chinese and Russian) 0.1% (2000)

Khalkha Mongol 90% (official), Turkic, Russian (1999)

Buddhist Lamaist 50%, Shamanist and Christian 6%, Muslim 4%, none 40% (2004)

Population World Ranking: 135
3,179,997 (July 2012 est.)

Age structure
0-14 years
27.3% (male 437,241/female 419,693)
15-64 years
68.7% (male 1,074,949/female 1,076,455)
65 years and over
4% (male 54,415/female 70,565) (2011 est.)

Median age
Total 26.6 years
Male 26.2 years
Female 27 years (2012 est.)

Population growth rate World Ranking: 81
1.469% (2012 est.)

Birth rate World Ranking: 84
20.7 births/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Death rate World Ranking: 161
6.01 deaths/1,000 population (July 2012 est.)

Net migration rate World Ranking: 99
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Urban population 62% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization
1.9% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major cities - population
ULAANBAATAR (capital) 949,000 (2009)

Sex ratio
At birth 1.05 male(s)/female
Under 15 years 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over 0.77 male(s)/female
Total population 1 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Maternal mortality rate World Ranking: 98
63 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)

Infant mortality rate World Ranking: 66
Total 36 deaths/1,000 live births
Male 38.94 deaths/1,000 live births
32.91 deaths/1,000 live births (2012 est.)

Life expectancy at birth World Ranking: 154
Total population 68.63 years
Male 66.16 years
Female 71.23 years (2012 est.)

Total fertility rate World Ranking: 103
2.19 children born/woman (2012 est.)

Health expenditures World Ranking: 40
9.3% of GDP (2009)

Physicians density
2.763 physicians/1,000 population (2008)

Hospital bed density
5.89 beds/1,000 population (2009)

Hiv/aids - adult prevalence rate World Ranking: 141
Less than 0.1% (2009 est.)

Hiv/aids - people living with hiv/aids World Ranking: 151
Fewer than 500 (2009 est.)

Hiv/aids - deaths World Ranking: 123
Fewer than 100 (2009 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate World Ranking: 57
9.8% (2005)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight World Ranking: 82
5.3% (2005)

Education expenditures World Ranking: 39
5.6% of GDP (2009)

Age 15 and over can read and write
Total population 97.4%
Male 96.9%
Female 97.9% (2010 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
Total 14 years
Male 13 years
Female 15 years (2009)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 World Ranking: 57
Total 20%
Male 19.5%
Female 20.7% (2003)


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  Mongolia (Ulaanbaatar):

  GPS points from Mongolia (Ulaanbaatar)

Dashilingiin Dugan Arhangay Aymag

Gurwandzagal East Aimak

O-hen-cha-ta-kai South Govi

Dolootoyn Hural Central Aymag

Janjigiin Dugang Arhangay Aymag

Pa-jun-su-li-t'e East Gobi Aymag

Bayan Dugang Bulgan Aymag

Hulasatay Hudag East Aimak
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