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Almost five centuries as a Portuguese colony came to a close with independence in 1975. Large-scale emigration, economic dependence on South Africa, a severe drought, and a prolonged civil war hindered the country's development until the mid 1990s. The ruling Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (Frelimo) party formally abandoned Marxism in 1989, and a new constitution the following year provided for multiparty elections and a free market economy. A UN-negotiated peace agreement between Frelimo and rebel Mozambique National Resistance (Renamo) forces ended the fighting in 1992. In December 2004, Mozambique underwent a delicate transition as Joaquim CHISSANO stepped down after 18 years in office. His elected successor, Armando Emilio GUEBUZA, promised to continue the sound economic policies that have encouraged foreign investment. President GUEBUZA was reelected to a second term in October 2009. However, the elections were flawed by voter fraud, questionable disqualification of candidates, and Frelimo use of government resources during the campaign. As a result, Freedom House removed Mozambique from its list of electoral democracies.


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Geography

Location
Southeastern Africa, bordering the Mozambique Channel, between South Africa and Tanzania

Geographic coordinates
18 15 S, 35 00 E

Map references
Africa

Area World Ranking: 35
Total 799,380 sq km
Land 786,380 sq km
Water 13,000 sq km

Area - comparative
Slightly less than twice the size of California

Land boundaries
Total 4,571 km
Border countries
Malawi 1,569 km, South Africa 491 km, Swaziland 105 km, Tanzania 756 km, Zambia 419 km, Zimbabwe 1,231 km

Coastline
2,470 km

Maritime claims
Territorial sea 12 nm
Exclusive economic zone 200 nm

Climate
Tropical to subtropical

Terrain
Mostly coastal lowlands, uplands in center, high plateaus in northwest, mountains in west

Elevation extremes
Lowest point Indian Ocean 0 m
Highest point Monte Binga 2,436 m

Natural resources
Coal, titanium, natural gas, hydropower, tantalum, graphite

Land use
Arable land 5.43%
Permanent crops 0.29%
Other 94.28% (2005)

Irrigated land
1,180 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources
216 cu km (1992)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)
Total 0.63 cu km/yr (11%/2%/87%)
Per capita 32 cu m/yr (2000)

Natural hazards
Severe droughts; devastating cyclones and floods in central and southern provinces

Environment - current issues
A long civil war and recurrent drought in the hinterlands have resulted in increased migration of the population to urban and coastal areas with adverse environmental consequences; desertification; pollution of surface and coastal waters; elephant poaching for ivory is a problem

Environment - international agreements
Party to
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
Signed, but not ratified
None of the selected agreements

Geography - note
The Zambezi flows through the north-central and most fertile part of the country


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  Mozambique (Maputo):


  GPS points from Mozambique (Maputo)

Panzamarrane Provincia De Gaza

Rio Lugela Provincia De Zambezia

Vetxoa Maputo

Namarirra Provincia De Nampula

Chingiane Provincia De Gaza


Muanange Provincia De Zambezia

Joaquim Provincia De Tete




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