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Almost five centuries as a Portuguese colony came to a close with independence in 1975. Large-scale emigration, economic dependence on South Africa, a severe drought, and a prolonged civil war hindered the country's development until the mid 1990s. The ruling Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (Frelimo) party formally abandoned Marxism in 1989, and a new constitution the following year provided for multiparty elections and a free market economy. A UN-negotiated peace agreement between Frelimo and rebel Mozambique National Resistance (Renamo) forces ended the fighting in 1992. In December 2004, Mozambique underwent a delicate transition as Joaquim CHISSANO stepped down after 18 years in office. His elected successor, Armando Emilio GUEBUZA, promised to continue the sound economic policies that have encouraged foreign investment. President GUEBUZA was reelected to a second term in October 2009. However, the elections were flawed by voter fraud, questionable disqualification of candidates, and Frelimo use of government resources during the campaign. As a result, Freedom House removed Mozambique from its list of electoral democracies.


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Government

Country name
Conventional long form Republic of Mozambique
Conventional short form Mozambique
Local long form Republica de Mocambique
Local short form Mocambique
Former Portuguese East Africa

Government type
Republic

Capital
Name Maputo
Geographic coordinates 25 57 S, 32 35 E
Time difference
UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions
10 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia), 1 city (cidade)*; Cabo Delgado, Gaza, Inhambane, Manica, Maputo, Cidade de Maputo*, Nampula, Niassa, Sofala, Tete, Zambezia

Independence
25 June 1975 (from Portugal)

Constitution
30 November 1990

Legal system
Mixed legal system of Portuguese civil law, Islamic law, and customary law

International law organization participation
Has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt

Suffrage
18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state
President Armando GUEBUZA (since 2 February 2005)
Head of government
Prime Minister Aires Bonifacio Baptista ALI (since 16 January 2010)
Cabinet Cabinet
Elections
President elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for three terms); election last held on 28 October 2009 (next to be held in 2014); prime minister appointed by the president
Election results
Armando GUEBUZA reelected president; percent of vote - Armando GUEBUZA 76.3%, Afonso DHLAKAMA 14.9%, Daviz SIMANGO 8.8%

Legislative branch
Unicameral Assembly of the Republic or Assembleia da Republica (250 seats; members directly elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
Elections
Last held on 28 October 2009 (next to be held in 2014)
Election results
Percent of vote by party - FRELIMO 74.7%, RENAMO 17.7%, MDM 3.9%, other 3.7%; seats by party - FRELIMO 191, RENAMO 51, MDM 8

Judicial branch
Supreme Court (the court of final appeal; some of its professional judges are appointed by the president, and some are elected by the Assembly); other courts include an Administrative Court, Constitutional Court, customs courts, maritime courts, courts marshal, labor courts

Political parties and leaders
Democratic Movement of Mozambique (Movimento Democratico de Mocambique) or MDM [Daviz SIMANGO]; Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (Frente de Liberatacao de Mocambique) or FRELIMO [Armando Emilio GUEBUZA]; Mozambique National Resistance (Resistencia Nacional Mocambicana) or RENAMO [Afonso DHLAKAMA]

Political pressure groups and leaders
Mozambican League of Human Rights (Liga Mocambicana dos Direitos Humanos) or LDH [Alice MABOTE, president]

International organization participation
ACP, AfDB, AU, C, CPLP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OIF (observer), OPCW, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the us
Chief of mission
Ambassador Amelia Matos SUMBANA
Chancery
1525 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
Telephone [1] (202) 293-7146
FAX [1] (202) 835-0245

Diplomatic representation from the us
Chief of mission Ambassador Leslie V. ROWE
Embassy
Avenida Kenneth Kuanda 193, Maputo
Mailing address P. O. Box 783, Maputo
Telephone [258] (21) 492797
FAX [258] (21) 490114

Flag description
Three equal horizontal bands of green (top), black, and yellow with a red isosceles triangle based on the hoist side; the black band is edged in white; centered in the triangle is a yellow five-pointed star bearing a crossed rifle and hoe in black superimposed on an open white book; green represents the riches of the land, white peace, black the African continent, yellow the country's minerals, and red the struggle for independence; the rifle symbolizes defense and vigilance, the hoe refers to the country's agriculture, the open book stresses the importance of education, and the star represents Marxism and internationalism

National anthem
Name
"Patria Amada" (Lovely Fatherland)
Lyrics/music Salomao J. MANHICA/unknown
Note Adopted 2002


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  Mozambique (Maputo):


  GPS points from Mozambique (Maputo)

Nampatiua Provincia De Nampula

Alifeu Provincia De Inhambane

Mucarro Provincia De Zambezia

Tuo Provincia De Nampula

Nicuacua Provincia De Niassa


Riueculo Mozambique (general)

Aldeia Bene Provincia De Tete




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