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People and Society






Almost five centuries as a Portuguese colony came to a close with independence in 1975. Large-scale emigration, economic dependence on South Africa, a severe drought, and a prolonged civil war hindered the country's development until the mid 1990s. The ruling Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (Frelimo) party formally abandoned Marxism in 1989, and a new constitution the following year provided for multiparty elections and a free market economy. A UN-negotiated peace agreement between Frelimo and rebel Mozambique National Resistance (Renamo) forces ended the fighting in 1992. In December 2004, Mozambique underwent a delicate transition as Joaquim CHISSANO stepped down after 18 years in office. His elected successor, Armando Emilio GUEBUZA, promised to continue the sound economic policies that have encouraged foreign investment. President GUEBUZA was reelected to a second term in October 2009. However, the elections were flawed by voter fraud, questionable disqualification of candidates, and Frelimo use of government resources during the campaign. As a result, Freedom House removed Mozambique from its list of electoral democracies.


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People And Society

Noun Mozambican(s)
Adjective Mozambican

Ethnic groups
African 99.66% (Makhuwa, Tsonga, Lomwe, Sena, and others), Europeans 0.06%, Euro-Africans 0.2%, Indians 0.08%

Emakhuwa 25.3%, Portuguese (official) 10.7%, Xichangana 10.3%, Cisena 7.5%, Elomwe 7%, Echuwabo 5.1%, other Mozambican languages 30.1%, other 4% (1997 census)

Catholic 28.4%, Protestant 27.7% (Zionist Christian 15.5%, Evangelical Pentecostal 10.9%, Anglican 1.3%), Muslim 17.9%, other 7.2%, none 18.7% (1997 census)

Population World Ranking: 50
23,515,934 (July 2012 est.)
Estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected; the 1997 Mozambican census reported a population of 16,099,246

Age structure
0-14 years
45.9% (male 5,295,776/female 5,245,485)
15-64 years
51.1% (male 5,550,501/female 6,174,668)
65 years and over
3% (male 313,892/female 368,536) (2011 est.)

Median age
Total 16.8 years
Male 16.2 years
Female 17.5 years (2012 est.)

Population growth rate World Ranking: 31
2.442% (2012 est.)

Birth rate World Ranking: 12
39.34 births/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Death rate World Ranking: 22
12.79 deaths/1,000 population (July 2012 est.)

Net migration rate World Ranking: 166
-2.13 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Urban population 38% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization
4% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major cities - population
MAPUTO (capital) 1.589 million; Matola 761,000 (2009)

Sex ratio
At birth 1.02 male(s)/female
Under 15 years 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years 0.9 male(s)/female
65 years and over 0.85 male(s)/female
Total population
0.95 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Maternal mortality rate World Ranking: 19
490 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)

Infant mortality rate World Ranking: 11
Total 76.85 deaths/1,000 live births
Male 79.04 deaths/1,000 live births
74.62 deaths/1,000 live births (2012 est.)

Life expectancy at birth World Ranking: 212
Total population 52.02 years
Male 51.26 years
Female 52.8 years (2012 est.)

Total fertility rate World Ranking: 11
5.4 children born/woman (2012 est.)

Health expenditures World Ranking: 119
5.7% of GDP (2009)

Physicians density
0.027 physicians/1,000 population (2006)

Hospital bed density
0.8 beds/1,000 population (2006)

Hiv/aids - adult prevalence rate World Ranking: 8
11.5% (2009 est.)

Hiv/aids - people living with hiv/aids World Ranking: 5
1.4 million (2009 est.)

Hiv/aids - deaths World Ranking: 7
74,000 (2009 est.)

Major infectious diseases
Degree of risk Very high
Food or waterborne diseases
Bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
Vectorborne diseases Malaria and plague
Water contact disease Schistosomiasis
Animal contact disease Rabies (2009)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight World Ranking: 29
21.2% (2003)

Education expenditures World Ranking: 57
5% of GDP (2006)

Age 15 and over can read and write
Total population 56.1%
Male 70.8%
Female 42.8% (2010 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
Total 9 years
Male 10 years
Female 8 years (2007)


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Quinta Do Vale Provincia De Gaza

Ilha Do Buzio Provincia De Nampula

Mecodejo Mozambique (general)

Murriquie Provincia De Nampula

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Madante Provincia De Tete

Uncuti Provincia De Niassa

Sao Bernardino Provincia De Inhambane
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