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In 1951, the Nepali monarch ended the century-old system of rule by hereditary premiers and instituted a cabinet system of government. Reforms in 1990 established a multiparty democracy within the framework of a constitutional monarchy. An insurgency led by Maoist extremists broke out in 1996. The ensuing 10-year civil war between insurgents and government forces witnessed the dissolution of the cabinet and parliament and assumption of absolute power by the king. Several weeks of mass protests in April 2006 were followed by several months of peace negotiations between the Maoists and government officials, and culminated in a November 2006 peace accord and the promulgation of an interim constitution. Following a nation-wide election in April 2008, the newly formed Constituent Assembly declared Nepal a federal democratic republic and abolished the monarchy at its first meeting the following month. The Constituent Assembly elected the country's first president in July. Between 2008 and 2011 there have been four different coalition governments, led twice by the United Communist Party of Nepal-Maoist, which received a plurality of votes in the Constituent Assembly election, and twice by the Communist Party of Nepal-United Marxist-Leninist. In November 2011, Maoist Prime Minister Baburam BHATTARAI, who was elected in August 2011, and the leaders of the main political parties signed an agreement seeking to conclude the peace process and recommit the Constituent Assembly to finish drafting the constitution by a May 2012 deadline.


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Transportation

Airports World Ranking: 94
47 (2012)

Airports - with paved runways
Total 11
Over 3,047 m 1
1,524 to 2,437 m 3
914 to 1,523 m 6
Under 914 m 1 (2012)

Airports - with unpaved runways
Total 36
1,524 to 2,437 m 1
914 to 1,523 m 6
Under 914 m 29 (2012)

Railways World Ranking: 130
Total 59 km
Narrow gauge 59 km 0.762-m gauge (2008)

Roadways World Ranking: 118
Total 17,282 km
Paved 10,142 km
Unpaved 7,140 km (2007)


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  Nepal (Kathmandu):


  GPS points from Nepal (Kathmandu)

Gurjakhana Nepal (general)

Pindu Bhanjyang Nepal (general)

Syangja Nepal (general)

Khuti Khola Nepal (general)

Shirha Nepal (general)

Katunje Nepal (general)

Chapia Nepal (general)

Central Valley Nepal (general)




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