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The Dutch United Provinces declared their independence from Spain in 1579; during the 17th century, they became a leading seafaring and commercial power, with settlements and colonies around the world. After a 20-year French occupation, a Kingdom of the Netherlands was formed in 1815. In 1830 Belgium seceded and formed a separate kingdom. The Netherlands remained neutral in World War I, but suffered invasion and occupation by Germany in World War II. A modern, industrialized nation, the Netherlands is also a large exporter of agricultural products. The country was a founding member of NATO and the EEC (now the EU), and participated in the introduction of the euro in 1999. In October 2010, the former Netherlands Antilles was dissolved and the three smallest islands - Bonaire, Sint Eustatius, and Saba - became special municipalities in the Netherlands administrative structure. The larger islands of Sint Maarten and Curacao joined the Netherlands and Aruba as constituent countries forming the Kingdom of the Netherlands.


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Transportation

Airports World Ranking: 124
27 (2012)

Airports - with paved runways
Total 20
Over 3,047 m 2
2,438 to 3,047 m 10
1,524 to 2,437 m 2
914 to 1,523 m 5
Under 914 m 1 (2012)

Airports - with unpaved runways
Total 7
914 to 1,523 m 3
Under 914 m 4 (2012)

Heliports
1 (2012)

Pipelines
Gas 4,413 km; oil 365 km; refined products 716 km (2010)

Railways World Ranking: 58
Total 2,896 km
Standard gauge
2,896 km 1.435-m gauge (2,195 km electrified) (2009)

Roadways World Ranking: 36
Total
136,827 km (includes 2,631 km of expressways) (2008)

Waterways World Ranking: 22
6,214 km (navigable for ships of 50 tons) (2009)

Merchant marine World Ranking: 15
Total 744
By type
Bulk carrier 4, cargo 514, carrier 15, chemical tanker 56, container 67, liquefied gas 21, passenger 17, passenger/cargo 14, petroleum tanker 4, refrigerated cargo 10, roll on/roll off 19, specialized tanker 3
Foreign-owned
196 (Australia 1, Bermuda 1, Denmark 27, Finland 13, France 2, Germany 86, Ireland 8, Italy 6, Japan 1, Norway 19, Sweden 12, UAE 4, US 16)
Registered in other countries
233 (Antigua and Barbuda 17, Bahamas 23, Belize 1, Canada 1, Curacao 43, Cyprus 23, Germany 1, Gibraltar 34, Italy 2, Liberia 31, Luxembourg 3, Malta 3, Marshall Islands 21, Panama 6, Paraguay 1, Philippines 17, Russia 2, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1, Singapore 1, UK 1, unknown 1) (2010)

Ports and terminals
Amsterdam, IJmuiden, Moerdijk, Rotterdam, Terneuzen, Vlissingen


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  Netherlands (Amsterdam):


  GPS points from Netherlands (Amsterdam)

Gemeente Zeewolde Provincie Flevoland

Polder Tollebeek I Provincie Flevoland

Eemmeerdijk Netherlands (general)

Raalterwetering Provincie Overijssel

Baarloo Provincie Overijssel

Westerterptocht North Holland

Oud Ehrenstein Provincie Limburg

Burgervlotbrug North Holland




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