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The Polynesian Maori reached New Zealand in about A.D. 800. In 1840, their chieftains entered into a compact with Britain, the Treaty of Waitangi, in which they ceded sovereignty to Queen Victoria while retaining territorial rights. In that same year, the British began the first organized colonial settlement. A series of land wars between 1843 and 1872 ended with the defeat of the native peoples. The British colony of New Zealand became an independent dominion in 1907 and supported the UK militarily in both world wars. New Zealand's full participation in a number of defense alliances lapsed by the 1980s. In recent years, the government has sought to address longstanding Maori grievances.


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Transportation

Airports World Ranking: 47
122 (2012)

Airports - with paved runways
Total 39
Over 3,047 m 2
2,438 to 3,047 m 1
1,524 to 2,437 m 12
914 to 1,523 m 23
Under 914 m 1 (2012)

Airports - with unpaved runways
Total 83
1,524 to 2,437 m 3
914 to 1,523 m 33
Under 914 m 47 (2012)

Pipelines
Condensate 331 km; gas 1,838 km; liquid petroleum gas 172 km; oil 288 km; refined products 198 km (2010)

Railways World Ranking: 41
Total 4,128 km
Narrow gauge
4,128 km 1.067-m gauge (506 km electrified) (2008)

Roadways World Ranking: 48
Total 93,911 km
Paved
61,879 km (includes 172 km of expressways)
Unpaved 32,032 km (2009)

Merchant marine World Ranking: 101
Total 15
By type
Bulk carrier 3, cargo 3, chemical tanker 1, container 1, passenger/cargo 5, petroleum tanker 2
Foreign-owned
7 (Germany 2, Hong Kong 1, South Africa 1, Switzerland 2, UK 1)
Registered in other countries
5 (Antigua and Barbuda 2, Cook Islands 2, Samoa 1) (2010)

Ports and terminals
Auckland, Lyttelton, Manukau Harbor, Marsden Point, Tauranga, Wellington


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  New Zealand (Wellington):


  GPS points from New Zealand (Wellington)

Sugar Loaf New Zealand (general)

Harry Island New Zealand (general)

Otatara Southland

Stonestead Creek New Zealand (general)

Takapurau Stream New Zealand (general)

Kawa-kawa New Zealand (general)

Taha-matua Canterbury

Mangarakai Stream New Zealand (general)




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