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Niger became independent from France in 1960 and experienced single-party and military rule until 1991, when Gen. Ali SAIBOU was forced by public pressure to allow multiparty elections, which resulted in a democratic government in 1993. Political infighting brought the government to a standstill and in 1996 led to a coup by Col. Ibrahim BARE. In 1999, BARE was killed in a counter coup by military officers who restored democratic rule and held elections that brought Mamadou TANDJA to power in December of that year. TANDJA was reelected in 2004 and in 2009 spearheaded a constitutional amendment that would allow him to extend his term as president. In February 2010, a military coup deposed TANDJA, immediately suspended the constitution and dissolved the Cabinet. ISSOUFOU Mahamadou emerged victorious from a crowded field in the election following the coup and was inaugurated in April 2011. Niger is one of the poorest countries in the world with minimal government services and insufficient funds to develop its resource base. The largely agrarian and subsistence-based economy is frequently disrupted by extended droughts common to the Sahel region of Africa. The Nigerien Movement for Justice, a predominately Tuareg ethnic group, emerged in February 2007, and attacked several military targets in Niger's northern region throughout 2007 and 2008. Successful government offensives in 2009 limited the rebels' operational capabilities.


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People And Society

Nationality
Noun Nigerien(s)
Adjective Nigerien

Ethnic groups
Haoussa 55.4%, Djerma Sonrai 21%, Tuareg 9.3%, Peuhl 8.5%, Kanouri Manga 4.7%, other 1.2% (2001 census)

Languages
French (official), Hausa, Djerma

Religions
Muslim 80%, other (includes indigenous beliefs and Christian) 20%

Population World Ranking: 64
16,344,687 (July 2012 est.)

Age structure
0-14 years
49.6% (male 4,129,164/female 4,045,412)
15-64 years
48% (male 3,944,586/female 3,964,249)
65 years and over
2.3% (male 170,741/female 214,734) (2011 est.)

Median age
Total 15.2 years
Male 15 years
Female 15.4 years (2012 est.)

Population growth rate World Ranking: 3
3.63% (2012 est.)

Birth rate World Ranking: 1
50.06 births/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Death rate World Ranking: 14
13.76 deaths/1,000 population (July 2012 est.)

Net migration rate World Ranking: 101
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Urbanization
Urban population 17% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization
4.7% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major cities - population
NIAMEY (capital) 1.004 million (2009)

Sex ratio
At birth 1.03 male(s)/female
Under 15 years 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over 0.79 male(s)/female
Total population 1 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Maternal mortality rate World Ranking: 13
590 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)

Infant mortality rate World Ranking: 2
Total
109.98 deaths/1,000 live births
Male
114.91 deaths/1,000 live births
Female
104.91 deaths/1,000 live births (2012 est.)

Life expectancy at birth World Ranking: 203
Total population 53.8 years
Male 52.51 years
Female 55.13 years (2012 est.)

Total fertility rate World Ranking: 1
7.16 children born/woman (2012 est.)

Health expenditures World Ranking: 102
6.1% of GDP (2009)

Physicians density
0.019 physicians/1,000 population (2008)

Hospital bed density
0.31 beds/1,000 population (2005)

Hiv/aids - adult prevalence rate World Ranking: 56
0.8% (2009 est.)

Hiv/aids - people living with hiv/aids World Ranking: 54
61,000 (2009 est.)

Hiv/aids - deaths World Ranking: 42
4,300 (2009 est.)

Major infectious diseases
Degree of risk Very high
Food or waterborne diseases
Bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
Vectorborne disease Malaria
Water contact disease Schistosomiasis
Animal contact disease Rabies
Respiratory disease Meningococcal meningitis
Note
Highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2009)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight World Ranking: 5
39.9% (2006)

Education expenditures World Ranking: 81
4.5% of GDP (2009)

Literacy
Definition
Age 15 and over can read and write
Total population 28.7%
Male 42.9%
Female 15.1% (2005 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
Total 5 years
Male 6 years
Female 5 years (2010)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 World Ranking: 126
Total 3.2%
Male 4%
Female 1.7% (2001)


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  Niger (Niamey):


  GPS points from Niger (Niamey)

Gidan Kognao Maradi



Yagagi Zinder


Maegamji Maradi

Takoukout Zinder





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