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Two centuries of Viking raids into Europe tapered off following the adoption of Christianity by King Olav TRYGGVASON in 994. Conversion of the Norwegian kingdom occurred over the next several decades. In 1397, Norway was absorbed into a union with Denmark that lasted more than four centuries. In 1814, Norwegians resisted the cession of their country to Sweden and adopted a new constitution. Sweden then invaded Norway but agreed to let Norway keep its constitution in return for accepting the union under a Swedish king. Rising nationalism throughout the 19th century led to a 1905 referendum granting Norway independence. Although Norway remained neutral in World War I, it suffered heavy losses to its shipping. Norway proclaimed its neutrality at the outset of World War II, but was nonetheless occupied for five years by Nazi Germany (1940-45). In 1949, neutrality was abandoned and Norway became a member of NATO. Discovery of oil and gas in adjacent waters in the late 1960s boosted Norway's economic fortunes. In referenda held in 1972 and 1994, Norway rejected joining the EU. Key domestic issues include immigration and integration of ethnic minorities, maintaining the country's extensive social safety net with an aging population, and preserving economic competitiveness.


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Military

Military branches
Norwegian Army (Haeren), Royal Norwegian Navy (Kongelige Norske Sjoeforsvaret, RNoN; includes Coastal Rangers and Coast Guard (Kystvakt)), Royal Norwegian Air Force (Kongelige Norske Luftforsvaret, RNoAF), Home Guard (Heimevernet, HV) (2011)

Military service age and obligation
18-44 years of age for male compulsory military service; 16 years of age in wartime; 17 years of age for male volunteers; 18 years of age for women; 12-month service obligation, in practice shortened to 8 to 9 months; although all males between ages of 18 and 44 are liable for service, in practice they are seldom called to duty after age 30; reserve obligation to age 35-60; 16 years of age for volunteers to the Home Guard, who serve 6-month duty tours (2009)

Manpower available for military service
Males age 16-49 1,079,043
Females age 16-49 1,051,210 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service
Males age 16-49 888,761
Females age 16-49 865,697 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually
Male 32,290
Female 30,777 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures World Ranking: 73
1.9% of GDP (2005 est.)


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  Norway (Oslo):


  GPS points from Norway (Oslo)

Tveitavik Rogaland Fylke

Laksevandene Finnmark Fylke

Krokneset Nordland Fylke

Dusevig Rogaland Fylke

Breivikbotn Finnmark Fylke

Skogselven Vestfold Fylke

Hjukse Telemark Fylke

Eikoya More Og Romsdal Fylke




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