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Two centuries of Viking raids into Europe tapered off following the adoption of Christianity by King Olav TRYGGVASON in 994. Conversion of the Norwegian kingdom occurred over the next several decades. In 1397, Norway was absorbed into a union with Denmark that lasted more than four centuries. In 1814, Norwegians resisted the cession of their country to Sweden and adopted a new constitution. Sweden then invaded Norway but agreed to let Norway keep its constitution in return for accepting the union under a Swedish king. Rising nationalism throughout the 19th century led to a 1905 referendum granting Norway independence. Although Norway remained neutral in World War I, it suffered heavy losses to its shipping. Norway proclaimed its neutrality at the outset of World War II, but was nonetheless occupied for five years by Nazi Germany (1940-45). In 1949, neutrality was abandoned and Norway became a member of NATO. Discovery of oil and gas in adjacent waters in the late 1960s boosted Norway's economic fortunes. In referenda held in 1972 and 1994, Norway rejected joining the EU. Key domestic issues include immigration and integration of ethnic minorities, maintaining the country's extensive social safety net with an aging population, and preserving economic competitiveness.


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Transportation

Airports World Ranking: 59
98 (2012)

Airports - with paved runways
Total 67
Over 3,047 m 1
2,438 to 3,047 m 12
1,524 to 2,437 m 11
914 to 1,523 m 19
Under 914 m 24 (2012)

Airports - with unpaved runways
Total 31
914 to 1,523 m 6
Under 914 m 25 (2012)

Heliports
1 (2012)

Pipelines
Condensate 31 km; gas 64 km (2010)

Railways World Ranking: 39
Total 4,169 km
Standard gauge
4,169 km 1.435-m gauge (2,784 km electrified) (2009)

Roadways World Ranking: 50
Total
93,509 km (includes 253 km of expressways) (2007)

Waterways World Ranking: 52
1,577 km (2010)

Merchant marine World Ranking: 19
Total 585
By type
Bulk carrier 55, cargo 105, carrier 5, chemical tanker 121, combination ore/oil 12, liquefied gas 47, passenger 3, passenger/cargo 121, petroleum tanker 54, refrigerated cargo 9, roll on/roll off 4, vehicle carrier 49
Foreign-owned
81 (Bermuda 24, Canada 1, Cyprus 1, Denmark 7, France 5, Iceland 2, Lithuania 1, Saudi Arabia 3, Sweden 27, US 10)
Registered in other countries
974 (Antigua and Barbuda 9, Bahamas 186, Barbados 38, Belize 2, Bermuda 5, Brazil 3, Canada 4, Chile 1, Comoros 1, Cook Islands 8, Croatia 2, Curacao 2, Cyprus 14, Denmark 2, Dominica 1, Equatorial Guinea 1, Estonia 2, Faroe Islands 13, Gibraltar 46, Hong Kong 48, Indonesia 3, Isle of Man 30, Italy 6, Liberia 38, Libya 1, Malta 96, Marshall Islands 75, Netherlands 19, Panama 81, Portugal 2, Saint Kitts and Nevis 3, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 13, Singapore 153, Spain 10, Sweden 3, UK 32, US 17, Vanuatu 1, unknown 3) (2010)

Ports and terminals
Bergen, Haugesund, Maaloy, Mongstad, Narvik, Sture


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  Norway (Oslo):


  GPS points from Norway (Oslo)

Julesaetra Nord-trondelag Fylke

Gjuvtjorn Oppland Fylke

Selsvika Nord-trondelag Fylke

Andoras Hedmark Fylke

Stromsfoss Ostfold

Hamarnes Finnmark Fylke

Haja Finnmark Fylke

Hole Oppland Fylke




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