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The Indus Valley civilization, one of the oldest in the world and dating back at least 5,000 years, spread over much of what is presently Pakistan. During the second millennium B.C., remnants of this culture fused with the migrating Indo-Aryan peoples. The area underwent successive invasions in subsequent centuries from the Persians, Greeks, Scythians, Arabs (who brought Islam), Afghans, and Turks. The Mughal Empire flourished in the 16th and 17th centuries; the British came to dominate the region in the 18th century. The separation in 1947 of British India into the Muslim state of Pakistan (with West and East sections) and largely Hindu India was never satisfactorily resolved, and India and Pakistan fought two wars - in 1947-48 and 1965 - over the disputed Kashmir territory. A third war between these countries in 1971 - in which India capitalized on Islamabad's marginalization of Bengalis in Pakistani politics - resulted in East Pakistan becoming the separate nation of Bangladesh. In response to Indian nuclear weapons testing, Pakistan conducted its own tests in 1998. India-Pakistan relations have been rocky since the November 2008 Mumbai attacks, but both countries are taking small steps to put relations back on track. In February 2008, Pakistan held parliamentary elections and in September 2008, after the resignation of former President MUSHARRAF, elected Asif Ali ZARDARI to the presidency. Pakistani government and military leaders are struggling to control domestic insurgents, many of whom are located in the tribal areas adjacent to the border with Afghanistan. In January 2012, Pakistan assumed a nonpermanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2012-13 term.


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People And Society

Nationality
Noun Pakistani(s)
Adjective Pakistani

Ethnic groups
Punjabi 44.68%, Pashtun (Pathan) 15.42%, Sindhi 14.1%, Sariaki 8.38%, Muhajirs 7.57%, Balochi 3.57%, other 6.28%

Languages
Punjabi 48%, Sindhi 12%, Saraiki (a Punjabi variant) 10%, Pashtu 8%, Urdu (official) 8%, Balochi 3%, Hindko 2%, Brahui 1%, English (official; lingua franca of Pakistani elite and most government ministries), Burushaski, and other 8%

Religions
Muslim (official) 95% (Sunni 75%, Shia 20%), other (includes Christian and Hindu) 5%

Population World Ranking: 6
190,291,129 (July 2012 est.)

Age structure
0-14 years
35.4% (male 34,093,853/female 32,278,462)
15-64 years
60.4% (male 58,401,016/female 54,671,873)
65 years and over
4.2% (male 3,739,647/female 4,157,870) (2011 est.)

Median age
Total 21.9 years
Male 21.9 years
Female 22 years (2012 est.)

Population growth rate World Ranking: 75
1.551% (2012 est.)

Birth rate World Ranking: 63
24.3 births/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Death rate World Ranking: 140
6.8 deaths/1,000 population (July 2012 est.)

Net migration rate World Ranking: 164
-2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Urbanization
Urban population 36% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization
3.1% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major cities - population
Karachi 13.125 million; Lahore 7.132 million; Faisalabad 2.849 million; Rawalpindi 2.026 million; ISLAMABAD (capital) 832,000 (2009)

Sex ratio
At birth 1.05 male(s)/female
Under 15 years 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years 1.07 male(s)/female
65 years and over 0.89 male(s)/female
Total population
1.06 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Maternal mortality rate World Ranking: 43
260 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)

Infant mortality rate World Ranking: 26
Total 61.27 deaths/1,000 live births
Male 64.51 deaths/1,000 live births
Female
57.88 deaths/1,000 live births (2012 est.)

Life expectancy at birth World Ranking: 165
Total population 66.35 years
Male 64.52 years
Female 68.28 years (2012 est.)

Total fertility rate World Ranking: 58
3.07 children born/woman (2012 est.)

Health expenditures World Ranking: 182
2.6% of GDP (2009)

Physicians density
0.813 physicians/1,000 population (2009)

Hospital bed density
0.6 beds/1,000 population (2009)

Hiv/aids - adult prevalence rate World Ranking: 146
0.1% (2009 est.)

Hiv/aids - people living with hiv/aids World Ranking: 42
98,000 (2009 est.)

Hiv/aids - deaths World Ranking: 34
5,800 (2009 est.)

Major infectious diseases
Degree of risk High
Food or waterborne diseases
Bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
Vectorborne diseases Dengue fever and malaria
Animal contact disease Rabies
Note
Highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2009)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight World Ranking: 17
31.3% (2001)

Education expenditures World Ranking: 143
2.7% of GDP (2009)

Literacy
Definition
Age 15 and over can read and write
Total population 54.9%
Male 68.6%
Female 40.3% (2009 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
Total 7 years
Male 8 years
Female 6 years (2009)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 World Ranking: 114
Total 7.7%
Male 7%
Female 10.5% (2008)


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  Pakistan (Islamabad):


  GPS points from Pakistan (Islamabad)

Jhok Darkhanwali North West Frontier Province

Kattah Khel North West Frontier Province

Muqam Dhora Balochistan

Imar Tizha Federally Administered Tribal Areas

Shaikh Kili Federally Administered Tribal Areas

Rodeni Karez Balochistan

Ziandai Algad Federally Administered Tribal Areas

Karak North West Frontier Province




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