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Explored and settled by the Spanish in the 16th century, Panama broke with Spain in 1821 and joined a union of Colombia, Ecuador, and Venezuela - named the Republic of Gran Colombia. When the latter dissolved in 1830, Panama remained part of Colombia. With US backing, Panama seceded from Colombia in 1903 and promptly signed a treaty with the US allowing for the construction of a canal and US sovereignty over a strip of land on either side of the structure (the Panama Canal Zone). The Panama Canal was built by the US Army Corps of Engineers between 1904 and 1914. In 1977, an agreement was signed for the complete transfer of the Canal from the US to Panama by the end of the century. Certain portions of the Zone and increasing responsibility over the Canal were turned over in the subsequent decades. With US help, dictator Manuel NORIEGA was deposed in 1989. The entire Panama Canal, the area supporting the Canal, and remaining US military bases were transferred to Panama by the end of 1999. In October 2006, Panamanians approved an ambitious plan (estimated to cost $5.3 billion) to expand the Canal. The project, which began in 2007 and could double the Canal's capacity, is expected to be completed in 2014-15.


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Transportation

Airports World Ranking: 48
118 (2012)

Airports - with paved runways
Total 55
Over 3,047 m 1
2,438 to 3,047 m 1
1,524 to 2,437 m 5
914 to 1,523 m 18
Under 914 m 30 (2012)

Airports - with unpaved runways
Total 63
1,524 to 2,437 m 1
914 to 1,523 m 11
Under 914 m 51 (2012)

Heliports
3 (2012)

Pipelines
Oil 128 km

Railways World Ranking: 127
Total 76 km
Standard gauge 76 km 1.435-m gauge (2008)

Roadways World Ranking: 130
Total 11,978 km
Paved 4,300 km
Unpaved 7,678 km (2002)

Waterways World Ranking: 73
800 km (includes the 82-km Panama Canal that is being widened) (2011)

Merchant marine World Ranking: 1
Total 6,413
By type
Barge carrier 1, bulk carrier 2,525, cargo 1,115, carrier 27, chemical tanker 588, combination ore/oil 1, container 742, liquefied gas 205, passenger 42, passenger/cargo 51, petroleum tanker 545, refrigerated cargo 191, roll on/roll off 87, specialized tanker 3, vehicle carrier 290
Foreign-owned
5,162 (Albania 4, Argentina 5, Australia 4, Bahamas 6, Bangladesh 5, Belgium 1, Bermuda 27, Brazil 3, Bulgaria 6, Burma 3, Canada 6, Chile 14, China 534, Colombia 2, Croatia 2, Cuba 2, Cyprus 5, Denmark 41, Ecuador 3, Egypt 11, Finland 2, France 7, Gabon 1, Germany 24, Gibraltar 1, Greece 379, Hong Kong 144, India 24, Indonesia 10, Iran 5, Ireland 1, Israel 1, Italy 25, Japan 2372, Jordan 11, Kuwait 12, Lebanon 2, Lithuania 3, Luxembourg 1, Malaysia 12, Maldives 2, Malta 2, Mexico 5, Monaco 11, Netherlands 6, Nigeria 6, Norway 81, Oman 10, Pakistan 3, Peru 9, Philippines 5, Portugal 10, Qatar 1, Romania 3, Russia 49, Saudi Arabia 11, Singapore 92, South Korea 373, Spain 30, Sweden 2, Switzerland 15, Syria 34, Taiwan 328, Tanzania 2, Thailand 6, Turkey 62, UAE 83, UK 37, UK 5, Ukraine 8, US 90, Venezuela 13, Vietnam 43, Yemen 4)
Registered in other countries 1 (Honduras 1) (2010)

Ports and terminals
Balboa, Colon, Cristobal


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  Panama (Panama City):


  GPS points from Panama (Panama City)

Turdi Tiwar San Blas

Quebrada De Canga Provincia De Chiriqui

Istmo Del Darien Panama (general)

Rio Taincormaque Kuna Yala

Quebrada Morfina Provincia De Cocle

Barrigon Provincia De Chiriqui

Chorrerita Numero Uno Provincia De Cocle

El Hato Del Volcan Provincia De Chiriqui




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