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The eastern half of the island of New Guinea - second largest in the world - was divided between Germany (north) and the UK (south) in 1885. The latter area was transferred to Australia in 1902, which occupied the northern portion during World War I and continued to administer the combined areas until independence in 1975. A nine-year secessionist revolt on the island of Bougainville ended in 1997 after claiming some 20,000 lives.

People And Society

Noun Papua New Guinean(s)
Adjective Papua New Guinean

Ethnic groups
Melanesian, Papuan, Negrito, Micronesian, Polynesian

Tok Pisin (official), English (official), Hiri Motu (official), some 860 indigenous languages spoken (over one-tenth of the world's total)
Tok Pisin, a creole language, is widely used and understood; English is spoken by 1%-2%; Hiri Motu is spoken by less than 2%

Roman Catholic 27%, Protestant 69.4% (Evangelical Lutheran 19.5%, United Church 11.5%, Seventh-Day Adventist 10%, Pentecostal 8.6%, Evangelical Alliance 5.2%, Anglican 3.2%, Baptist 2.5%, other Protestant 8.9%), Baha'i 0.3%, indigenous beliefs and other 3.3% (2000 census)

Population World Ranking: 105
6,310,129 (July 2012 est.)

Age structure
0-14 years
36.4% (male 1,145,946/female 1,106,705)
15-64 years
60% (male 1,907,787/female 1,802,144)
65 years and over
3.6% (male 121,207/female 103,802) (2011 est.)

Median age
Total 22 years
Male 22.3 years
Female 21.8 years (2012 est.)

Population growth rate World Ranking: 58
1.936% (2012 est.)

Birth rate World Ranking: 54
25.92 births/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Death rate World Ranking: 148
6.56 deaths/1,000 population (July 2012 est.)

Net migration rate World Ranking: 102
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Urban population 13% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization
2.9% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major cities - population
PORT MORESBY (capital) 314,000 (2009)

Sex ratio
At birth 1.05 male(s)/female
Under 15 years 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years 1.06 male(s)/female
65 years and over 1.14 male(s)/female
Total population
1.05 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Maternal mortality rate World Ranking: 50
230 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)

Infant mortality rate World Ranking: 57
Total 42.05 deaths/1,000 live births
Male 45.8 deaths/1,000 live births
38.11 deaths/1,000 live births (2012 est.)

Life expectancy at birth World Ranking: 162
Total population 66.46 years
Male 64.23 years
Female 68.79 years (2012 est.)

Total fertility rate World Ranking: 49
3.39 children born/woman (2012 est.)

Health expenditures World Ranking: 176
3.1% of GDP (2009)

Physicians density
0.053 physicians/1,000 population (2008)

Hiv/aids - adult prevalence rate World Ranking: 50
0.9% (2009 est.)

Hiv/aids - people living with hiv/aids World Ranking: 66
34,000 (2009 est.)

Hiv/aids - deaths World Ranking: 62
1,300 (2009 est.)

Major infectious diseases
Degree of risk Very high
Food or waterborne diseases
Bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
Vectorborne diseases
Dengue fever and malaria (2009)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight World Ranking: 40
18.1% (2005)

Education expenditures

Age 15 and over can read and write
Total population 57.3%
Male 63.4%
Female 50.9% (2000 census)

People - note
The indigenous population of Papua New Guinea is one of the most heterogeneous in the world; PNG has several thousand separate communities, most with only a few hundred people; divided by language, customs, and tradition, some of these communities have engaged in low-scale tribal conflict with their neighbors for millennia; the advent of modern weapons and modern migrants into urban areas has greatly magnified the impact of this lawlessness


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  Papua New Guinea (Port Moresby):

  GPS points from Papua New Guinea (Port Moresby)

Haszard Island Milne Bay Province

Sidabadu Western Province

Ewore Northern Province

Iabim Southern Highlands Province

Pakawala New Ireland

Kilamala Milne Bay Province

Panemate Milne Bay Province

Two Sisters Western Province
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