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Ancient Peru was the seat of several prominent Andean civilizations, most notably that of the Incas whose empire was captured by the Spanish conquistadors in 1533. Peruvian independence was declared in 1821, and remaining Spanish forces were defeated in 1824. After a dozen years of military rule, Peru returned to democratic leadership in 1980, but experienced economic problems and the growth of a violent insurgency. President Alberto FUJIMORI's election in 1990 ushered in a decade that saw a dramatic turnaround in the economy and significant progress in curtailing guerrilla activity. Nevertheless, the president's increasing reliance on authoritarian measures and an economic slump in the late 1990s generated mounting dissatisfaction with his regime, which led to his ouster in 2000. A caretaker government oversaw new elections in the spring of 2001, which ushered in Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique as the new head of government - Peru's first democratically elected president of Native American ethnicity. The presidential election of 2006 saw the return of Alan GARCIA Perez who, after a disappointing presidential term from 1985 to 1990, has overseen a robust macroeconomic performance. In June 2011, former army officer Ollanta HUMALA Tasso was elected president, defeating Keiko FUJIMORI Higuchi, the daughter of Alberto FUJIMORI. Since his election, HUMALA has carried on the sound, market-oriented economic policies of the three preceeding administrations.


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Communications

Telephones - main lines in use World Ranking: 48
3.16 million (2009)

Telephones - mobile cellular World Ranking: 33
29.115 million (2009)

Telephone system
General assessment
Adequate for most requirements; nationwide microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system with 12 earth stations
Domestic
Fixed-line teledensity is only about 10 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity, spurred by competition among multiple providers, is approaching 100 telephones per 100 persons
International
Country code - 51; the South America-1 (SAM-1) and Pan American (PAN-AM) submarine cable systems provide links to parts of Central and South America, the Caribbean, and US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2009)

Broadcast media
10 major TV networks of which only one, Television Nacional de Peru, is state-owned; multi-channel cable TV services are available; in excess of 2,000 radio stations including a substantial number of indigenous language stations (2010)

Internet country code
.pe

Internet hosts World Ranking: 69
232,515 (2010)

Internet users World Ranking: 31
9.158 million (2009)


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  Peru (Lima):


  GPS points from Peru (Lima)

Puerto Chicama Malabrigo Departamento De La Libertad

Hacienda Malaga Departamento De Arequipa

Pampa Sanjose Departamento De Arequipa

Posuma Departamento De Cusco


Cerro Chinchiscoto Departamento De Lima

Cerro De Taquila Departamento De Ica

Guayabo Departamento De Piura




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