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Following its heyday as a global maritime power during the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal lost much of its wealth and status with the destruction of Lisbon in a 1755 earthquake, occupation during the Napoleonic Wars, and the independence of its wealthiest colony of Brazil in 1822. A 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy; for most of the next six decades, repressive governments ran the country. In 1974, a left-wing military coup installed broad democratic reforms. The following year, Portugal granted independence to all of its African colonies. Portugal is a founding member of NATO and entered the EC (now the EU) in 1986. In January 2011, Portugal assumed a nonpermanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2011-12 term.


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Geography

Location
Southwestern Europe, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Spain

Geographic coordinates
39 30 N, 8 00 W

Map references
Europe

Area World Ranking: 111
Total 92,090 sq km
Land 91,470 sq km
Water 620 sq km
Note
Includes Azores and Madeira Islands

Area - comparative
Slightly smaller than Indiana

Land boundaries
Total 1,214 km
Border countries Spain 1,214 km

Coastline
1,793 km

Maritime claims
Territorial sea 12 nm
Contiguous zone 24 nm
Exclusive economic zone 200 nm
Continental shelf
200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation

Climate
Maritime temperate; cool and rainy in north, warmer and drier in south

Terrain
Mountainous north of the Tagus River, rolling plains in south

Elevation extremes
Lowest point Atlantic Ocean 0 m
Highest point
Ponta do Pico (Pico or Pico Alto) on Ilha do Pico in the Azores 2,351 m

Natural resources
Fish, forests (cork), iron ore, copper, zinc, tin, tungsten, silver, gold, uranium, marble, clay, gypsum, salt, arable land, hydropower

Land use
Arable land 17.29%
Permanent crops 7.84%
Other 74.87% (2005)

Irrigated land
5,840 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources
73.6 cu km (2005)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)
Total 11.09 cu km/yr (10%/12%/78%)
Per capita 1,056 cu m/yr (1998)

Natural hazards
Azores subject to severe earthquakes
Volcanism
Limited volcanic activity in the Azores Islands; Fayal or Faial (elev. 1,043 m) last erupted in 1958; most volcanoes have not erupted in centuries; historically active volcanoes include Agua de Pau, Furnas, Pico, Picos Volcanic System, San Jorge, Sete Cidades, and Terceira

Environment - current issues
Soil erosion; air pollution caused by industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution, especially in coastal areas

Environment - international agreements
Party to
Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
Signed, but not ratified
Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Environmental Modification

Geography - note
Azores and Madeira Islands occupy strategic locations along western sea approaches to Strait of Gibraltar


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  Portugal (Lisbon):


  GPS points from Portugal (Lisbon)

Cabeco Do Zimbralinho Regiao Autonoma Da Madeira

Luzio Distrito De Viana Do Castelo

Dardavaz Distrito De Viseu

Serros Amarelos Braganca

Mata De Pindela Distrito De Braga

Ponta Do Norte Regiao Autonoma Dos Acores

Muxagata Distrito Da Guarda

Verride Distrito De Coimbra




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