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Upon independence in 1960, the former French region of Middle Congo became the Republic of the Congo. A quarter century of experimentation with Marxism was abandoned in 1990 and a democratically elected government took office in 1992. A brief civil war in 1997 restored former Marxist President Denis SASSOU-Nguesso, and ushered in a period of ethnic and political unrest. Southern-based rebel groups agreed to a final peace accord in March 2003, but the calm is tenuous and refugees continue to present a humanitarian crisis. The Republic of Congo was once one of Africa's largest petroleum producers, but with declining production it will need new offshore oil finds to sustain its oil earnings over the long term.


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People And Society

Nationality
Noun
Congolese (singular and plural)
Adjective Congolese or Congo

Ethnic groups
Kongo 48%, Sangha 20%, M'Bochi 12%, Teke 17%, Europeans and other 3%

Languages
French (official), Lingala and Monokutuba (lingua franca trade languages), many local languages and dialects (of which Kikongo is the most widespread)

Religions
Christian 50%, animist 48%, Muslim 2%

Population World Ranking: 124
4,366,266 (July 2012 est.)
Note
Estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected

Age structure
0-14 years
45.6% (male 973,332/female 960,100)
15-64 years
51.7% (male 1,091,531/female 1,101,057)
65 years and over
2.8% (male 48,383/female 69,526) (2011 est.)

Median age
Total 17.1 years
Male 16.9 years
Female 17.3 years (2012 est.)

Population growth rate World Ranking: 15
2.849% (2012 est.)

Birth rate World Ranking: 10
40.09 births/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Death rate World Ranking: 37
11.25 deaths/1,000 population (July 2012 est.)

Net migration rate World Ranking: 133
-0.35 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Urbanization
Urban population 62% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization
3% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major cities - population
BRAZZAVILLE (capital) 1.292 million (2009)

Sex ratio
At birth 1.03 male(s)/female
Under 15 years 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over 0.69 male(s)/female
Total population
0.99 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Maternal mortality rate World Ranking: 15
560 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)

Infant mortality rate World Ranking: 17
Total 74.22 deaths/1,000 live births
Male 79.58 deaths/1,000 live births
Female
68.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2012 est.)

Life expectancy at birth World Ranking: 199
Total population 55.27 years
Male 53.95 years
Female 56.62 years (2012 est.)

Total fertility rate World Ranking: 9
5.59 children born/woman (2012 est.)

Health expenditures World Ranking: 179
3% of GDP (2009)

Physicians density
0.095 physicians/1,000 population (2007)

Hospital bed density
1.6 beds/1,000 population (2005)

Hiv/aids - adult prevalence rate World Ranking: 18
3.4% (2009 est.)

Hiv/aids - people living with hiv/aids World Ranking: 46
77,000 (2009 est.)

Hiv/aids - deaths World Ranking: 37
5,100 (2009 est.)

Major infectious diseases
Degree of risk Very high
Food or waterborne diseases
Bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
Vectorborne disease
Malaria and African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness)
Animal contact disease Rabies
Water contact disease Schistosomiasis (2009)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight World Ranking: 61
11.8% (2005)

Education expenditures World Ranking: 157
1.9% of GDP (2005)

Literacy
Definition
Age 15 and over can read and write
Total population 83.8%
Male 89.6%
Female 78.4% (2003 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
Total 10 years
Male 11 years
Female 10 years (2005)


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  Republic Of The Congo (Brazzaville):


  GPS points from Republic Of The Congo (Brazzaville)

Dzonga Region De La Cuvette

Ekongo Region De La Cuvette

Moulanga Region De La Bouenza

Louvisi Occidentale Republic Of The Congo (general)

Kodia Region Du Pool

Louvizi Region De La Bouenza

Mapeme Region Des Plateaux

Hombo Region De La Cuvette




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