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The principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia - for centuries under the suzerainty of the Turkish Ottoman Empire - secured their autonomy in 1856; they were de facto linked in 1859 and formally united in 1862 under the new name of Romania. The country gained recognition of its independence in 1878. It joined the Allied Powers in World War I and acquired new territories - most notably Transylvania - following the conflict. In 1940, Romania allied with the Axis powers and participated in the 1941 German invasion of the USSR. Three years later, overrun by the Soviets, Romania signed an armistice. The post-war Soviet occupation led to the formation of a Communist "people's republic" in 1947 and the abdication of the king. The decades-long rule of dictator Nicolae CEAUSESCU, who took power in 1965, and his Securitate police state became increasingly oppressive and draconian through the 1980s. CEAUSESCU was overthrown and executed in late 1989. Former Communists dominated the government until 1996 when they were swept from power. Romania joined NATO in 2004 and the EU in 2007.


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People And Society

Nationality
Noun Romanian(s)
Adjective Romanian

Ethnic groups
Romanian 89.5%, Hungarian 6.6%, Roma 2.5%, Ukrainian 0.3%, German 0.3%, Russian 0.2%, Turkish 0.2%, other 0.4% (2002 census)

Languages
Romanian (official) 91%, Hungarian 6.7%, Romany (Gypsy) 1.1%, other 1.2%

Religions
Eastern Orthodox (including all sub-denominations) 86.8%, Protestant (various denominations including Reformate and Pentecostal) 7.5%, Roman Catholic 4.7%, other (mostly Muslim) and unspecified 0.9%, none 0.1% (2002 census)

Population World Ranking: 56
21,848,504 (July 2012 est.)

Age structure
0-14 years
14.8% (male 1,667,894/female 1,579,458)
15-64 years
70.4% (male 7,684,514/female 7,725,957)
65 years and over
14.8% (male 1,314,132/female 1,932,596) (2011 est.)

Median age
Total 39.1 years
Male 37.7 years
Female 40.6 years (2012 est.)

Population growth rate World Ranking: 209
-0.26% (2012 est.)

Birth rate World Ranking: 200
9.49 births/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Death rate World Ranking: 32
11.84 deaths/1,000 population (July 2012 est.)

Net migration rate World Ranking: 125
-0.26 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Urbanization
Urban population 57% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization
0.6% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major cities - population
BUCHAREST (capital) 1.933 million (2009)

Sex ratio
At birth 1.06 male(s)/female
Under 15 years 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over 0.68 male(s)/female
Total population
0.95 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Maternal mortality rate World Ranking: 128
27 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)

Infant mortality rate World Ranking: 142
Total 10.73 deaths/1,000 live births
Male 12.12 deaths/1,000 live births
Female
9.24 deaths/1,000 live births (2012 est.)

Life expectancy at birth World Ranking: 108
Total population 74.22 years
Male 70.75 years
Female 77.89 years (2012 est.)

Total fertility rate World Ranking: 211
1.3 children born/woman (2012 est.)

Health expenditures World Ranking: 131
5.4% of GDP (2009)

Physicians density
1.9166 physicians/1,000 population (2006)

Hospital bed density
6.54 beds/1,000 population (2006)

Hiv/aids - adult prevalence rate World Ranking: 150
0.1% (2009 est.)

Hiv/aids - people living with hiv/aids World Ranking: 83
16,000 (2009 est.)

Hiv/aids - deaths World Ranking: 70
Fewer than 1,000 (2009 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate World Ranking: 58
8.6% (2000)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight World Ranking: 99
3.5% (2002)

Education expenditures World Ranking: 92
4.3% of GDP (2007)

Literacy
Definition
Age 15 and over can read and write
Total population 97.7%
Male 98.3%
Female 97.1% (2010 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
Total 15 years
Male 14 years
Female 15 years (2008)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 World Ranking: 51
Total 20.8%
Male 21.2%
Female 20.2% (2009)


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  Romania (Bucharest):


  GPS points from Romania (Bucharest)

Babakaj Judetul Caras-severin

Comuna Radesti Judetul Alba

Piscul Lung Judetul Mehedinti

Comuna Borla Judetul Salaj

Movila Ostrov Romania (general)

Mirislaul Judetul Alba

Targu Bujor Judetul Galati

Jobbagytelke Judetul Mures




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