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Discovered and claimed by Portugal in the late 15th century, the islands' sugar-based economy gave way to coffee and cocoa in the 19th century - all grown with plantation slave labor, a form of which lingered into the 20th century. While independence was achieved in 1975, democratic reforms were not instituted until the late 1980s. The country held its first free elections in 1991, but frequent internal wrangling between the various political parties precipitated repeated changes in leadership and two failed coup attempts in 1995 and 2003. The recent discovery of oil in the Gulf of Guinea promises to attract increased attention to the small island nation.


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People And Society

Nationality
Noun Sao Tomean(s)
Adjective Sao Tomean

Ethnic groups
Mestico, angolares (descendants of Angolan slaves), forros (descendants of freed slaves), servicais (contract laborers from Angola, Mozambique, and Cape Verde), tongas (children of servicais born on the islands), Europeans (primarily Portuguese)

Languages
Portuguese (official)

Religions
Catholic 70.3%, Evangelical 3.4%, New Apostolic 2%, Adventist 1.8%, other 3.1%, none 19.4% (2001 census)

Population World Ranking: 185
183,176 (July 2012 est.)

Age structure
0-14 years
44.7% (male 40,777/female 39,386)
15-64 years
52.2% (male 46,114/female 47,509)
65 years and over
3.2% (male 2,634/female 3,086) (2011 est.)

Median age
Total 17.6 years
Male 17.2 years
Female 18.1 years (2012 est.)

Population growth rate World Ranking: 50
1.996% (2012 est.)

Birth rate World Ranking: 20
37.02 births/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Death rate World Ranking: 105
7.93 deaths/1,000 population (July 2012 est.)

Net migration rate World Ranking: 207
-9.14 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Urbanization
Urban population 62% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization
2.8% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major cities - population
SAO TOME (capital) 60,000 (2009)

Sex ratio
At birth 1.03 male(s)/female
Under 15 years 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over 0.84 male(s)/female
Total population 1 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Maternal mortality rate World Ranking: 87
70 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)

Infant mortality rate World Ranking: 43
Total 51.83 deaths/1,000 live births
Male 53.89 deaths/1,000 live births
Female
49.71 deaths/1,000 live births (2012 est.)

Life expectancy at birth World Ranking: 174
Total population 63.49 years
Male 62.27 years
Female 64.74 years (2012 est.)

Total fertility rate World Ranking: 21
4.94 children born/woman (2012 est.)

Health expenditures World Ranking: 78
7.1% of GDP (2009)

Physicians density
0.49 physicians/1,000 population (2004)

Hospital bed density
3.2 beds/1,000 population (2006)

Hiv/aids - adult prevalence rate
NA

Hiv/aids - people living with hiv/aids
NA

Hiv/aids - deaths
NA

Major infectious diseases
Degree of risk High
Food or waterborne diseases
Bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
Vectorborne disease Malaria
Animal contact disease Rabies (2009)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight World Ranking: 59
13.1% (2009)

Education expenditures
NA

Literacy
Definition
Age 15 and over can read and write
Total population 84.9%
Male 92.2%
Female 77.9% (2001 census)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
Total 11 years
Male 11 years
Female 11 years (2010)


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  Sao Tome And Principe (Sao Tome):


  GPS points from Sao Tome And Principe (Sao Tome)


Ilheu Das Cabras Sao Tome

Cantagalo Sao Tome

Vista Alegre Sao Tome

Monte Roza Sao Tome

Dutchman's Cap Principe

Canal Das Rolas Sao Tome

Oke Bobo Sao Tome




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