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Slovakia's roots can be traced to the 9th century state of Great Moravia. Subsequently, the Slovaks became part of the Hungarian Kingdom, where they remained for the next 1,000 years. Following the formation of the dual Austro-Hungarian monarchy in 1867, language and education policies favoring the use of Hungarian (Magyarization) resulted in a strengthening of Slovak nationalism and a cultivation of cultural ties with the closely related Czechs, who were themselves ruled by the Austrians. After the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire at the close of World War I, the Slovaks joined the Czechs to form Czechoslovakia. Following the chaos of World War II, Czechoslovakia became a Communist nation within Soviet-dominated Eastern Europe. Soviet influence collapsed in 1989 and Czechoslovakia once more became free. The Slovaks and the Czechs agreed to separate peacefully on 1 January 1993. Slovakia joined both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004 and the euro area on 1 January 2009.


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Geography

Location
Central Europe, south of Poland

Geographic coordinates
48 40 N, 19 30 E

Map references
Europe

Area World Ranking: 131
Total 49,035 sq km
Land 48,105 sq km
Water 930 sq km

Area - comparative
About twice the size of New Hampshire

Land boundaries
Total 1,474 km
Border countries
Austria 91 km, Czech Republic 197 km, Hungary 676 km, Poland 420 km, Ukraine 90 km

Coastline
0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims
None (landlocked)

Climate
Temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters

Terrain
Rugged mountains in the central and northern part and lowlands in the south

Elevation extremes
Lowest point Bodrok River 94 m
Highest point Gerlachovsky Stit 2,655 m

Natural resources
Brown coal and lignite; small amounts of iron ore, copper and manganese ore; salt; arable land

Land use
Arable land 29.23%
Permanent crops 2.67%
Other 68.1% (2005)

Irrigated land
1,660 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources
50.1 cu km (2003)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)
Total 1.04
Per capita 193 cu m/yr (2003)

Natural hazards
NA

Environment - current issues
Air pollution from metallurgical plants presents human health risks; acid rain damaging forests

Environment - international agreements
Party to
Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
Signed, but not ratified
None of the selected agreements

Geography - note
Landlocked; most of the country is rugged and mountainous; the Tatra Mountains in the north are interspersed with many scenic lakes and valleys


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  Slovakia (Bratislava):


  GPS points from Slovakia (Bratislava)

Banova Banskobystricky Kraj

Marusov Vrch Zilinsky Kraj

Poproc Banskobystricky Kraj

Rovne Zilinsky Kraj

Maly Sulin Presovsky Kraj

Makovica Slovakia (general)

Choca Nitriansky Kraj

Radoma Presovsky Kraj




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