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The UK established a protectorate over the Solomon Islands in the 1890s. Some of the most bitter fighting of World War II occurred on this archipelago. Self-government was achieved in 1976 and independence two years later. Ethnic violence, government malfeasance, and endemic crime have undermined stability and civil society. In June 2003, then Prime Minister Sir Allan KEMAKEZA sought the assistance of Australia in reestablishing law and order; the following month, an Australian-led multinational force arrived to restore peace and disarm ethnic militias. The Regional Assistance Mission to the Solomon Islands (RAMSI) has generally been effective in restoring law and order and rebuilding government institutions.


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Government

Country name
Conventional long form None
Conventional short form Solomon Islands
Local long form None
Local short form Solomon Islands
Former British Solomon Islands

Government type
Parliamentary democracy and a Commonwealth realm

Capital
Name Honiara
Geographic coordinates 9 26 S, 159 57 E
Time difference
UTC+11 (16 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions
9 provinces and 1 capital territory*; Central, Choiseul, Guadalcanal, Honiara*, Isabel, Makira, Malaita, Rennell and Bellona, Temotu, Western

Independence
7 July 1978 (from the UK)

Constitution
7 July 1978

Legal system
Mixed legal system of English common law and customary law

International law organization participation
Has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt

Suffrage
21 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General Frank KABUI (since 7 July 2009)
Head of government
Prime Minister Gordon Darcy LILO (since 16 November 2011)
Cabinet
Cabinet consists of 20 members appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister from among the members of parliament
Elections
The monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the advice of parliament for up to five years (eligible for a second term); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition usually elected prime minister by parliament; deputy prime minister appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister from among the members of parliament; Gordon Darcy LILO elected on 16 November 2011

Legislative branch
Unicameral National Parliament (50 seats; members elected from single-member constituencies by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
Elections
Last held on 4 August 2010 (next to be held in 2014)
Election results
Percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - SIDP 14, OUR 4, SIPRA 3, RDP 3, IDP 2, DDP 2, PCP 1, PFP 1, RUPP 1, SILP 1, SINP 1, independents 17

Judicial branch
Court of Appeal

Political parties and leaders
Direct Development Party or DDP [Dick HA'AMORI]; People's Alliance Party or PAP [James MEKAB]; People's Congress Party or PCP [Fred FONO]; People's Federation Party or PFP [Rudolf DORA]; Ownership, Unity, and Responsibility Party or OUR [Manasseh SOGAVARE]; Reform Democratic Party or RDP [Danny PHILIP]; Rural and Urban Political Party or RUPP [Samuel MANETOALI]; Solomon Islands Democratic Party or SIDP [Steve ABANA]; Solomon Islands Liberal Party or SILP [Derek SIKUA]; Solomon Islands National Party or SINP [Francis HILLY]; Solomon Islands Party for Rural Advancement or SIPRA [Job D. TAUSINGA]; United Party [Sir Peter KENILOREA]
Note
In general, Solomon Islands politics is characterized by fluid coalitions

Political pressure groups and leaders
Isatabu Freedom Movement (IFM); Malaita Eagle Force (MEF); note - these rival armed ethnic factions crippled the Solomon Islands in a wave of violence from 1999 to 2003

International organization participation
ACP, ADB, AOSIS, C, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IOC, ITU, MIGA, OPCW, PIF, Sparteca, SPC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the us
Chief of mission Ambassador Collin David BECK
Chancery
800 Second Avenue, Suite 400L, New York, NY 10017
Telephone [1] (212) 599-6192, 6193
FAX [1] (212) 661-8925

Diplomatic representation from the us
The US does not have an embassy in the Solomon Islands; the US ambassador to Papua New Guinea is accredited to the Solomon Islands

Flag description
Divided diagonally by a thin yellow stripe from the lower hoist-side corner; the upper triangle (hoist side) is blue with five white five-pointed stars arranged in an X pattern; the lower triangle is green; blue represents the ocean; green the land; and yellow sunshine; the five stars stand for the five main island groups of the Solomon Islands

National anthem
Name "God Save Our Solomon Islands"
Lyrics/music
Panapasa BALEKANA and Matila BALEKANA/Panapasa BALEKANA
Note Adopted 1978

Government - note
By the end of 2007, the Regional Assistance Mission to the Solomon Islands (RAMSI) - originally made up of police and troops from Australia, NZ, Fiji, Papua New Guinea, and Tonga - had been scaled back to 303 police officers, 197 civilian technical advisers, and 72 military advisers from 15 countries across the region


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  Solomon Islands (Honiara):


  GPS points from Solomon Islands (Honiara)

Fauabu Makira-ulawa Province

Kasaranga Makira-ulawa Province

Kokoseti Island Solomon Islands (general)

Paronakaili Island Solomon Islands (general)

Karunjuapa Island Solomon Islands (general)

Vella Gulf Solomon Islands (general)

Nusaveke Island Solomon Islands (general)

Siwapau Makira-ulawa Province




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