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Spain's powerful world empire of the 16th and 17th centuries ultimately yielded command of the seas to England. Subsequent failure to embrace the mercantile and industrial revolutions caused the country to fall behind Britain, France, and Germany in economic and political power. Spain remained neutral in World Wars I and II but suffered through a devastating civil war (1936-39). A peaceful transition to democracy following the death of dictator Francisco FRANCO in 1975, and rapid economic modernization (Spain joined the EU in 1986) gave Spain a dynamic and rapidly growing economy and made it a global champion of freedom and human rights. The government's major focus for the immediate future will be on measures to reverse the severe economic recession that started in mid-2008.


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People And Society

Nationality
Noun Spaniard(s)
Adjective Spanish

Ethnic groups
Composite of Mediterranean and Nordic types

Languages
Castilian Spanish (official) 74%, Catalan 17%, Galician 7%, and Basque 2%
Note
Catalan is official in Catalonia, the Balearic Islands, and the Valencian Community (where it is known as Valencian); in the northwest corner of Catalonia (Vall d'Aran), Aranese is official along with Catalan; Galician is official in Galicia; Basque is official in the Basque Country

Religions
Roman Catholic 94%, other 6%

Population World Ranking: 27
47,042,984 (July 2012 est.)

Age structure
0-14 years
15.1% (male 3,646,614/female 3,435,311)
15-64 years
67.7% (male 16,036,556/female 15,637,090)
65 years and over
17.1% (male 3,389,681/female 4,609,532) (2011 est.)

Median age
Total 40.9 years
Male 39.7 years
Female 42.2 years (2012 est.)

Population growth rate World Ranking: 142
0.654% (2012 est.)

Birth rate World Ranking: 182
10.4 births/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Death rate World Ranking: 71
8.88 deaths/1,000 population (July 2012 est.)

Net migration rate World Ranking: 19
5.02 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Urbanization
Urban population 77% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization
1% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major cities - population
MADRID (capital) 5.762 million; Barcelona 5.029 million; Valencia 812,000 (2009)

Sex ratio
At birth 1.06 male(s)/female
Under 15 years 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over 0.74 male(s)/female
Total population
0.97 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Maternal mortality rate World Ranking: 172
6 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)

Infant mortality rate World Ranking: 213
Total 3.37 deaths/1,000 live births
Male 3.71 deaths/1,000 live births
Female
3.01 deaths/1,000 live births (2012 est.)

Life expectancy at birth World Ranking: 15
Total population 81.27 years
Male 78.26 years
Female 84.47 years (2012 est.)

Total fertility rate World Ranking: 189
1.48 children born/woman (2012 est.)

Health expenditures World Ranking: 34
9.7% of GDP (2009)

Physicians density
3.705 physicians/1,000 population (2009)

Hospital bed density
3.22 beds/1,000 population (2008)

Hiv/aids - adult prevalence rate World Ranking: 77
0.4% (2009 est.)

Hiv/aids - people living with hiv/aids World Ranking: 35
130,000 (2009 est.)

Hiv/aids - deaths World Ranking: 58
1,600 (2009 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate World Ranking: 34
15.6% (2007)

Education expenditures World Ranking: 94
4.3% of GDP (2007)

Literacy
Definition
Age 15 and over can read and write
Total population 97.7%
Male 98.5%
Female 97% (2010 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
Total 16 years
Male 16 years
Female 17 years (2008)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 World Ranking: 9
Total 37.9%
Male 39.1%
Female 36.4% (2009)


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  Spain (Madrid):


  GPS points from Spain (Madrid)

Sierra De Las Dorados Castille-la Mancha

Corullon Castille And Leon

Carral Galicia

Puerto De La Mezquita Extremadura

Rio Ojallera La Rioja

Palomar Valencia

Ledesma Castille And Leon

Montana De Las Cruces Basque Country




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