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Spain's powerful world empire of the 16th and 17th centuries ultimately yielded command of the seas to England. Subsequent failure to embrace the mercantile and industrial revolutions caused the country to fall behind Britain, France, and Germany in economic and political power. Spain remained neutral in World Wars I and II but suffered through a devastating civil war (1936-39). A peaceful transition to democracy following the death of dictator Francisco FRANCO in 1975, and rapid economic modernization (Spain joined the EU in 1986) gave Spain a dynamic and rapidly growing economy and made it a global champion of freedom and human rights. The government's major focus for the immediate future will be on measures to reverse the severe economic recession that started in mid-2008.


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Transportation

Airports World Ranking: 36
152 (2012)

Airports - with paved runways
Total 98
Over 3,047 m 18
2,438 to 3,047 m 12
1,524 to 2,437 m 19
914 to 1,523 m 25
Under 914 m 24 (2012)

Airports - with unpaved runways
Total 54
1,524 to 2,437 m 2
914 to 1,523 m 14
Under 914 m 38 (2012)

Heliports
10 (2012)

Pipelines
Gas 9,359 km; oil 560 km; refined products 3,441 km (2010)

Railways World Ranking: 18
Total 15,293 km
Broad gauge
11,919 km 1.668-m gauge (6,950 km electrified)
Standard gauge
1,392 km 1.435-m gauge (1,054 km electrified)
Narrow gauge
1,954 km 1.000-m gauge (815 km electrified); 28 km 0.914-m gauge (2008)

Roadways World Ranking: 10
Total 681,298 km
Paved
681,298 km (includes 15,152 km of expressways) (2008)

Waterways World Ranking: 64
1,000 km (2012)

Merchant marine World Ranking: 44
Total 132
By type
Bulk carrier 7, cargo 19, chemical tanker 8, container 5, liquefied gas 12, passenger/cargo 43, petroleum tanker 18, refrigerated cargo 4, roll on/roll off 9, vehicle carrier 7
Foreign-owned
27 (Canada 4, Germany 4, Italy 1, Mexico 1, Norway 10, Russia 6, Switzerland 1)
Registered in other countries
103 (Angola 1, Argentina 3, Bahamas 6, Brazil 12, Cape Verde 1, Cyprus 6, Ireland 1, Malta 8, Morocco 9, Panama 30, Peru 1, Portugal 18, Uruguay 5, Venezuela 1, unknown 1) (2010)

Ports and terminals
Algeciras, Barcelona, Bilbao, Cartagena, Huelva, Tarragona, Valencia (Spain); Las Palmas, Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Canary Islands)


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  Spain (Madrid):


  GPS points from Spain (Madrid)



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