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Military regimes favoring Islamic-oriented governments have dominated national politics since independence from the UK in 1956. Sudan was embroiled in two prolonged civil wars during most of the remainder of the 20th century. These conflicts were rooted in northern economic, political, and social domination of largely non-Muslim, non-Arab southern Sudanese. The first civil war ended in 1972 but broke out again in 1983. The second war and famine-related effects resulted in more than four million people displaced and, according to rebel estimates, more than two million deaths over a period of two decades. Peace talks gained momentum in 2002-04 with the signing of several accords. The final North/South Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA), signed in January 2005, granted the southern rebels autonomy for six years followed by a referendum on independence for Southern Sudan. The referendum was held in January 2011 and indicated overwhelming support for independence. South Sudan became independent on 9 July 2011. Since southern independence Sudan has been combating rebels from the Sudan People's Liberation Movement-North (SPLM-N) in Southern Kordofan and Blue Nile states. A separate conflict, which broke out in the western region of Darfur in 2003, has displaced nearly two million people and caused an estimated 200,000 to 400,000 deaths. The UN took command of the Darfur peacekeeping operation from the African Union in December 2007. Peacekeeping troops have struggled to stabilize the situation, which has become increasingly regional in scope and has brought instability to eastern Chad. Sudan also has faced large refugee influxes from neighboring countries primarily Ethiopia and Chad. Armed conflict, poor transport infrastructure, and lack of government support have chronically obstructed the provision of humanitarian assistance to affected populations.


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Economy

Economy - overview
Sudan is an extremely poor country that has had to deal with social conflict, civil war, and the July 2011 secession of South Sudan - the region of the country that had been responsible for about three-fourths of the former Sudan's total oil production. The oil sector had driven much of Sudan''s GDP growth since it began exporting oil in 1999. For nearly a decade, the economy boomed on the back of increases in oil production, high oil prices, and significant inflows of foreign direct investment. Following South Sudan''s secession, Sudan has struggled to maintain economic stability, because oil earnings now provide a far lower share of the country''s need for hard currency and for budget revenues. Sudan is attempting to generate new sources of revenues, such as from gold mining, while carrying out an austerity program to reduce expenditures. Services and utilities have played an increasingly important role in the economy. Agricultural production continues to employ 80% of the work force and contributes a third of GDP. Sudan introduced a new currency, still called the Sudanese pound, following South Sudan''s secession, but the value of the currency has fallen since its introduction and shortages of foreign exchange continue. Sudan also faces rising inflation, which has led to a number of small scale protests in Khartoum in recent months. Ongoing conflicts in Southern Kordofan, Darfur, and the Blue Nile states, lack of basic infrastructure in large areas, and reliance by much of the population on subsistence agriculture ensure that much of the population will remain at or below the poverty line for years to come.

Gdp (purchasing power parity) World Ranking: 76
$90.19 billion (2011 est.)
$93.86 billion (2010 est.)
$89.84 billion (2009 est.)
Note Data are in 2011 US dollars

Gdp (official exchange rate)
$64.75 billion (2011 est.)

Gdp - real growth rate World Ranking: 211
-3.9% (2011 est.)
4.5% (2010 est.)
3% (2009 est.)

Gdp - per capita (ppp) World Ranking: 173
$2,800 (2011 est.)
$2,300 (2010 est.)
$2,300 (2009 est.)
Note Data are in 2011 US dollars

Gdp - composition by sector
Agriculture 25%
Industry 29.3%
Services 45.7% (2011 est.)

Labor force World Ranking: 44
11.92 million (2007 est.)

Labor force - by occupation
Agriculture 80%
Industry 7%
Services 13% (1998 est.)

Unemployment rate World Ranking: 160
18.7% (2002 est.)

Population below poverty line
46.5% (2009 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10% 2.7%
Highest 10% 26.7%

Investment (gross fixed) World Ranking: 46
24.6% of GDP (2011 est.)

Budget
Revenues $8.991 billion
Expenditures $11.89 billion (2011 est.)

Taxes and other revenues World Ranking: 201
13.9% of GDP (2011 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) World Ranking: 149
-4.5% of GDP (2011 est.)

Public debt World Ranking: 15
93.7% of GDP (2011 est.)
93.4% of GDP (2010 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices) World Ranking: 212
18% (2011 est.)
13% (2010 est.)

Stock of narrow money World Ranking: 77
$9.925 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$8.027 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Stock of broad money World Ranking: 93
$15.62 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$14.53 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Stock of domestic credit World Ranking: 90
$12.73 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$12.78 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares
$NA

Agriculture - products
Cotton, groundnuts (peanuts), sorghum, millet, wheat, gum arabic, sugarcane, cassava (tapioca), mangoes, papaya, bananas, sweet potatoes, sesame; sheep and other livestock

Industries
Oil, cotton ginning, textiles, cement, edible oils, sugar, soap distilling, shoes, petroleum refining, pharmaceuticals, armaments, automobile/light truck assembly

Industrial production growth rate World Ranking: 88
3.5% (2010 est.)

Electricity - production World Ranking: 116
4.323 billion kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - consumption World Ranking: 122
3.787 billion kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - exports
0 kWh (2009 est.)

Electricity - imports
0 kWh (2009 est.)

Oil - production World Ranking: 31
514,300 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Oil - consumption World Ranking: 75
98,000 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Oil - exports World Ranking: 35
383,900 bbl/day (2009 est.)

Oil - imports World Ranking: 138
11,820 bbl/day (2009 est.)

Oil - proved reserves World Ranking: 26
5 billion bbl (1 January 2011 est.)

Natural gas - production World Ranking: 129
0 cu m (2009 est.)

Natural gas - consumption World Ranking: 133
0 cu m (2009 est.)

Natural gas - exports World Ranking: 184
0 cu m (2009 est.)

Natural gas - imports World Ranking: 129
0 cu m (2009 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves World Ranking: 59
84.95 billion cu m (1 January 2011 est.)

Current account balance World Ranking: 53
$123.3 million (2011 est.)
$156.9 million (2010 est.)

Exports World Ranking: 98
$8.798 billion (2011 est.)
$11.4 billion (2010 est.)

Exports - commodities
Oil and petroleum products; cotton, sesame, livestock, groundnuts, gum arabic, sugar

Exports - partners
China 68.1%, Japan 14.3%, India 5.6% (2011)

Imports World Ranking: 105
$8.088 billion (2011 est.)
$8.839 billion (2010 est.)

Imports - commodities
Foodstuffs, manufactured goods, refinery and transport equipment, medicines and chemicals, textiles, wheat

Imports - partners
China 20.2%, Saudi Arabia 9.1%, UAE 6.7%, Egypt 6.6%, India 6.3%, Germany 4.3% (2011)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold World Ranking: 150
$295 million (31 December 2011 est.)
$842.8 million (31 December 2010 est.)

Debt - external World Ranking: 63
$38.58 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$37.56 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Exchange rates
Sudanese pounds (SDG) per US dollar -
2.67 (2011 est.)
2.31 (2010 est.)
2.3 (2009)
2.1 (2008)
2.06 (2007)

Fiscal year
Calendar year


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  Sudan (Khartoum):


  GPS points from Sudan (Khartoum)

Sha`ab El Shubuk Red Sea State

Khor Lesinda Western Equatoria State


Meshawar Northern Darfur State

Kheirban Western Darfur State

El Hugeiliga (su27)

Khawr Orob (su31)

Twabor Upper Nile State




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