North America
North America
South America
South America


Administrative divisions (GPS Maps)


People and Society






Military regimes favoring Islamic-oriented governments have dominated national politics since independence from the UK in 1956. Sudan was embroiled in two prolonged civil wars during most of the remainder of the 20th century. These conflicts were rooted in northern economic, political, and social domination of largely non-Muslim, non-Arab southern Sudanese. The first civil war ended in 1972 but broke out again in 1983. The second war and famine-related effects resulted in more than four million people displaced and, according to rebel estimates, more than two million deaths over a period of two decades. Peace talks gained momentum in 2002-04 with the signing of several accords. The final North/South Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA), signed in January 2005, granted the southern rebels autonomy for six years followed by a referendum on independence for Southern Sudan. The referendum was held in January 2011 and indicated overwhelming support for independence. South Sudan became independent on 9 July 2011. Since southern independence Sudan has been combating rebels from the Sudan People's Liberation Movement-North (SPLM-N) in Southern Kordofan and Blue Nile states. A separate conflict, which broke out in the western region of Darfur in 2003, has displaced nearly two million people and caused an estimated 200,000 to 400,000 deaths. The UN took command of the Darfur peacekeeping operation from the African Union in December 2007. Peacekeeping troops have struggled to stabilize the situation, which has become increasingly regional in scope and has brought instability to eastern Chad. Sudan also has faced large refugee influxes from neighboring countries primarily Ethiopia and Chad. Armed conflict, poor transport infrastructure, and lack of government support have chronically obstructed the provision of humanitarian assistance to affected populations.


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North-eastern Africa, bordering the Red Sea, between Egypt and Eritrea

Geographic coordinates
15 00 N, 30 00 E

Map references

Area World Ranking: 16
Total 1,861,484 sq km
Land NA
Water NA

Area - comparative
Slightly less than one-fifth the size of the US

Land boundaries
Total 6,751 km
Border countries
Central African Republic 175 km, Chad 1,360 km, Egypt 1,275 km, Eritrea 605 km, Ethiopia 769 km, Libya 383 km, South Sudan 2,184 km
Sudan-South Sudan boundary represents 1 January 1956 alignment; final alignment pending negotiations and demarcation; final sovereignty status of Abyei region pending negotiations between Sudan and South Sudan

853 km

Maritime claims
Territorial sea 12 nm
Contiguous zone 18 nm
Continental shelf
200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation

Hot and dry; arid desert; rainy season varies by region (April to November)

Generally flat, featureless plain; desert dominates the north

Elevation extremes
Lowest point Red Sea 0 m
Highest point Jabal Marrah 3,071 m

Natural resources
Petroleum; small reserves of iron ore, copper, chromium ore, zinc, tungsten, mica, silver, gold; hydropower

Land use
Arable land NA
Permanent crops NA
Other NA (2005)

Irrigated land
18,630 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources
154 cu km (1997)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)
Total 37.32 cu km/yr (3%/1%/97%)
Per capita 1,030 cu m/yr (2000)

Natural hazards
Dust storms and periodic persistent droughts

Environment - current issues
Inadequate supplies of potable water; wildlife populations threatened by excessive hunting; soil erosion; desertification; periodic drought

Environment - international agreements
Party to
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
Signed, but not ratified
None of the selected agreements

Geography - note
Dominated by the Nile and its tributaries


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  Sudan (Khartoum):

  GPS points from Sudan (Khartoum)

Kor Jonglei State

Jebel Bowati River Nile State

Debbat Quseisa Ash Sharqiyah

Sedian Island River Nile State

Gabur Central Equatoria

Rahad Al Humrat Northern Kordofan State

Kneyu Southern Darfur State
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