North America
North America
South America
South America


Administrative divisions (GPS Maps)


People and Society






Military regimes favoring Islamic-oriented governments have dominated national politics since independence from the UK in 1956. Sudan was embroiled in two prolonged civil wars during most of the remainder of the 20th century. These conflicts were rooted in northern economic, political, and social domination of largely non-Muslim, non-Arab southern Sudanese. The first civil war ended in 1972 but broke out again in 1983. The second war and famine-related effects resulted in more than four million people displaced and, according to rebel estimates, more than two million deaths over a period of two decades. Peace talks gained momentum in 2002-04 with the signing of several accords. The final North/South Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA), signed in January 2005, granted the southern rebels autonomy for six years followed by a referendum on independence for Southern Sudan. The referendum was held in January 2011 and indicated overwhelming support for independence. South Sudan became independent on 9 July 2011. Since southern independence Sudan has been combating rebels from the Sudan People's Liberation Movement-North (SPLM-N) in Southern Kordofan and Blue Nile states. A separate conflict, which broke out in the western region of Darfur in 2003, has displaced nearly two million people and caused an estimated 200,000 to 400,000 deaths. The UN took command of the Darfur peacekeeping operation from the African Union in December 2007. Peacekeeping troops have struggled to stabilize the situation, which has become increasingly regional in scope and has brought instability to eastern Chad. Sudan also has faced large refugee influxes from neighboring countries primarily Ethiopia and Chad. Armed conflict, poor transport infrastructure, and lack of government support have chronically obstructed the provision of humanitarian assistance to affected populations.


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Airports World Ranking: 74
72 (2012)

Airports - with paved runways
Total 15
Over 3,047 m 3
2,438 to 3,047 m 9
1,524 to 2,437 m 2
Under 914 m 1 (2012)

Airports - with unpaved runways
Total 57
2,438 to 3,047 m 1
1,524 to 2,437 m 17
914 to 1,523 m 27
Under 914 m 12 (2012)

6 (2012)

Gas 156 km; oil 4,070 km; refined products 1,613 km (2010)

Railways World Ranking: 30
Total 5,978 km
Narrow gauge
4,578 km 1.067-m gauge; 1,400 km 0.600-m gauge for cotton plantations (2008)

Roadways World Ranking: 131
Total 11,900 km
Paved 4,320 km
Unpaved 7,580 km (2000)

Waterways World Ranking: 25
4,068 km (1,723 km open year round on White and Blue Nile rivers) (2011)

Merchant marine World Ranking: 143
Total 2
By type Cargo 2 (2010)

Ports and terminals
Port Sudan


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  Sudan (Khartoum):

  GPS points from Sudan (Khartoum)

Kawahla White Nile State

Habilah Western Darfur State

Umm `abdullah Southern Kordofan State

Umm Heglig Northern Kordofan State

Awan Upper Nile State

Jebel Lodonga Central Equatoria

Lung Unity State

Wadi Dimatulei Southern Darfur State
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