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A military power during the 17th century, Sweden has not participated in any war for almost two centuries. An armed neutrality was preserved in both world wars. Sweden's long-successful economic formula of a capitalist system interlarded with substantial welfare elements was challenged in the 1990s by high unemployment and in 2000-02 and 2009 by the global economic downturns, but fiscal discipline over the past several years has allowed the country to weather economic vagaries. Sweden joined the EU in 1995, but the public rejected the introduction of the euro in a 2003 referendum.


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Economy

Economy - overview
Aided by peace and neutrality for the whole of the 20th century, Sweden has achieved an enviable standard of living under a mixed system of high-tech capitalism and extensive welfare benefits. It has a modern distribution system, excellent internal and external communications, and a highly skilled labor force. In September 2003, Swedish voters turned down entry into the euro system concerned about the impact on the economy and sovereignty. Timber, hydropower, and iron ore constitute the resource base of an economy heavily oriented toward foreign trade. Privately owned firms account for vast majority of industrial output, of which the engineering sector accounts for about 50% of output and exports. Agriculture accounts for little more than 1% of GDP and of employment. Until 2008, Sweden was in the midst of a sustained economic upswing, boosted by increased domestic demand and strong exports. This and robust finances offered the center-right government considerable scope to implement its reform program aimed at increasing employment, reducing welfare dependence, and streamlining the state's role in the economy. Despite strong finances and underlying fundamentals, the Swedish economy slid into recession in the third quarter of 2008 and growth continued downward in 2009 as deteriorating global conditions reduced export demand and consumption. Strong exports of commodities and a return to profitability by Sweden''s banking sector drove the strong rebound in 2010, which continued in 2011, and the government is proposing stimulus measures in the 2012 budget to curb the effects of a global economic slowdown and boost employment and growth.

Gdp (purchasing power parity) World Ranking: 34
$386.6 billion (2011 est.)
$371.8 billion (2010 est.)
$351.2 billion (2009 est.)
Note Data are in 2011 US dollars

Gdp (official exchange rate)
$538.2 billion (2011 est.)

Gdp - real growth rate World Ranking: 97
4% (2011 est.)
5.8% (2010 est.)
-4.8% (2009 est.)

Gdp - per capita (ppp) World Ranking: 21
$40,900 (2011 est.)
$39,500 (2010 est.)
$37,600 (2009 est.)
Note Data are in 2011 US dollars

Gdp - composition by sector
Agriculture 1.8%
Industry 27.3%
Services 70.9% (2011 est.)

Labor force World Ranking: 75
5.018 million (2011 est.)

Labor force - by occupation
Agriculture 1.1%
Industry 28.2%
Services 70.7% (2008 est.)

Unemployment rate World Ranking: 87
7.5% (2011 est.)
8.4% (2010 est.)

Population below poverty line
NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10% 3.6%
Highest 10% 22.2% (2000)

Distribution of family income - gini index World Ranking: 136
23 (2005)
25 (1992)

Investment (gross fixed) World Ranking: 115
18.3% of GDP (2011 est.)

Budget
Revenues $277.6 billion
Expenditures $277.1 billion (2011 est.)

Taxes and other revenues World Ranking: 16
51.6% of GDP (2011 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) World Ranking: 44
0.1% of GDP (2011 est.)

Public debt World Ranking: 86
37.5% of GDP (2011 est.)
39.4% of GDP (2010 est.)
Note
Data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment. Debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions.

Inflation rate (consumer prices) World Ranking: 57
3% (2011 est.)
1.2% (2010 est.)

Central bank discount rate World Ranking: 136
5.5% (31 December 2010 est.)
0.5% (31 December 2009 est.)

Commercial bank prime lending rate World Ranking: 171
4.3% (31 December 2011 est.)
3.386% (31 December 2010 est.)

Stock of narrow money World Ranking: 17
$229.1 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$235.6 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Stock of broad money World Ranking: 22
$440.2 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$298.8 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Stock of domestic credit World Ranking: 19
$790.7 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$705.4 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares World Ranking: 21
$470.1 billion (31 December 2011)
$581.2 billion (31 December 2010)
$432.3 billion (31 December 2009)

Agriculture - products
Barley, wheat, sugar beets; meat, milk

Industries
Iron and steel, precision equipment (bearings, radio and telephone parts, armaments), wood pulp and paper products, processed foods, motor vehicles

Industrial production growth rate World Ranking: 46
6.8% (2011 est.)

Electricity - production World Ranking: 26
129.4 billion kWh (2009 est.)

Electricity - consumption World Ranking: 24
132.1 billion kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - exports
9.085 billion kWh (2009 est.)

Electricity - imports
4.686 billion kWh (2009 est.)

Oil - production World Ranking: 96
4,833 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Oil - consumption World Ranking: 37
351,100 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Oil - exports World Ranking: 46
243,200 bbl/day (2009 est.)

Oil - imports World Ranking: 21
546,500 bbl/day (2009 est.)

Oil - proved reserves World Ranking: 197
0 bbl (1 January 2011 est.)

Natural gas - production World Ranking: 132
0 cu m (2010 est.)

Natural gas - consumption World Ranking: 82
1.626 billion cu m (2010 est.)

Natural gas - exports World Ranking: 187
0 cu m (2010 est.)

Natural gas - imports World Ranking: 51
1.626 billion cu m (2010 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves World Ranking: 133
0 cu m (1 January 2011 est.)

Current account balance World Ranking: 14
$41.2 billion (2011 est.)
$30.41 billion (2010 est.)

Exports World Ranking: 29
$192.9 billion (2011 est.)
$160.4 billion (2010 est.)

Exports - commodities
Machinery 35%, motor vehicles, paper products, pulp and wood, iron and steel products, chemicals

Exports - partners
Germany 10.5%, Norway 9.3%, UK 7.4%, Denmark 6.5%, Finland 6.5%, US 5.5%, Netherlands 5.2%, France 4.9%, Belgium 4.8% (2011)

Imports World Ranking: 28
$179.6 billion (2011 est.)
$149.5 billion (2010 est.)

Imports - commodities
Machinery, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, motor vehicles, iron and steel; foodstuffs, clothing

Imports - partners
Germany 18.4%, Denmark 8.2%, Norway 7.8%, Netherlands 6.1%, UK 5.9%, Russia 5.7%, Finland 5.3%, China 4.7%, France 4.6% (2011)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold World Ranking: 34
$50.35 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$48.3 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Debt - external World Ranking: 16
$1.016 trillion (30 June 2011)
$853.3 billion (30 June 2010)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home World Ranking: 17
$360.8 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$348.6 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad World Ranking: 15
$364.2 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$336.1 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Exchange rates
Swedish kronor (SEK) per US dollar -
6.4935 (2011 est.)
7.2075 (2010 est.)
7.6529 (2009)
6.4074 (2008)
6.7629 (2007)

Fiscal year
Calendar year


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  Sweden (Stockholm):


  GPS points from Sweden (Stockholm)

Nykvarn Stockholm

Lutarp Joenkoeping

Halsoren Norrbotten

Svedja Gaevleborg

Kalvamo Kalmar

Stenshyttan Gaevleborg

Lillhojen Gaevleborg

Vinerhojden Oerebro




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