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In 1895, military defeat forced China to cede Taiwan to Japan. Taiwan reverted to Chinese control after World War II. Following the Communist victory on the mainland in 1949, 2 million Nationalists fled to Taiwan and established a government using the 1947 constitution drawn up for all of China. Over the next five decades, the ruling authorities gradually democratized and incorporated the local population within the governing structure. In 2000, Taiwan underwent its first peaceful transfer of power from the Nationalist to the Democratic Progressive Party. Throughout this period, the island prospered and became one of East Asia's economic "Tigers." The dominant political issues continue to be the relationship between Taiwan and China - specifically the question of Taiwan's eventual status - as well as domestic political and economic reform.


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Transportation

Airports World Ranking: 105
40 (2012)

Airports - with paved runways
Total 37
Over 3,047 m 8
2,438 to 3,047 m 7
1,524 to 2,437 m 11
914 to 1,523 m 9
Under 914 m 2 (2012)

Airports - with unpaved runways
Total 3
1,524 to 2,437 m 2
Under 914 m 1 (2012)

Heliports
32 (2012)

Pipelines
Gas 412 km (2010)

Railways World Ranking: 79
Total 1,580 km
Standard gauge
345 km 1.435-m gauge (345 km electrified)
Narrow gauge
1,085 km 1.067-m gauge (685 km electrified); 150 km 0.762-m gauge
Note
The 0.762 gauge track belongs to three entities, the Forestry Bureau, Taiwan Cement, and TaiPower (2009)

Roadways World Ranking: 88
Total 41,475 km
Paved
41,033 km (includes 720 km of expressways)
Unpaved 442 km (2009)

Merchant marine World Ranking: 47
Total 112
By type
Bulk carrier 35, cargo 20, chemical tanker 1, container 31, passenger/cargo 4, petroleum tanker 12, refrigerated cargo 7, roll on/roll off 2
Foreign-owned 3 (France 2, Vietnam 1)
Registered in other countries
579 (Argentina 2, Cambodia 1, Honduras 1, Hong Kong 25, Indonesia 1, Italy 10, Kiribati 2, Liberia 94, Marshall Islands 8, Panama 328, Philippines 1, Sierra Leone 7, Singapore 77, South Korea 1, Thailand 1, UK 11, Vanuatu 1, unknown 8) (2010)

Ports and terminals
Chilung (Keelung), Kaohsiung, Hualian, Taichung

Shipyards and ship building
Shipyards 6
Ships Built 18 (2009)


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  Taiwan (Taipei):


  GPS points from Taiwan (Taipei)

Ts'o-tzu T Ai-wan

Mu-chi-liao T Ai-wan

Pa-li-wan T Ai-wan


Chung-li T Ai-wan

Wen-an-t'ou T Ai-wan

Hsiu-ts'ai-wo T Ai-wan

Ting-ho-tzu-liao Kao-hsiung




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