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Shortly after achieving independence from Britain in the early 1960s, Tanganyika and Zanzibar merged to form the nation of Tanzania in 1964. One-party rule ended in 1995 with the first democratic elections held in the country since the 1970s. Zanzibar's semi-autonomous status and popular opposition have led to two contentious elections since 1995, which the ruling party won despite international observers' claims of voting irregularities. The formation of a government of national unity between Zanzibar's two leading parties succeeded in minimizing electoral tension in 2010.


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Transportation

Airports World Ranking: 52
106 (2012)

Airports - with paved runways
Total 11
Over 3,047 m 3
2,438 to 3,047 m 2
1,524 to 2,437 m 4
914 to 1,523 m 2 (2012)

Airports - with unpaved runways
Total 95
1,524 to 2,437 m 19
914 to 1,523 m 58
Under 914 m 18 (2012)

Pipelines
Gas 254 km; oil 888 km; refined products 8 km (2010)

Railways World Ranking: 45
Total 3,689 km
Narrow gauge
969 km 1.067-m gauge; 2,720 km 1.000-m gauge (2008)

Roadways World Ranking: 54
Total 91,049 km
Paved 6,578 km
Unpaved 84,471 km (2007)

Waterways
(Lake Tanganyika, Lake Victoria, and Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi) are the principal avenues of commerce with neighboring countries; the rivers are not navigable) (2011)

Merchant marine World Ranking: 52
Total 94
By type
Bulk carrier 6, cargo 66, carrier 4, chemical tanker 1, container 1, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 10, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 3
Foreign-owned
42 (Japan 1, Romania 1, Saudi Arabia 1, Syria 23, Turkey 13, UAE 3)
Registered in other countries 3 (Panama 2, UK 1) (2010)

Ports and terminals
Dar es Salaam, Zanzibar

Transportation - note
The International Maritime Bureau reports that shipping in territorial and offshore waters in the Indian Ocean remain at risk for piracy and armed robbery against ships, especially as Somali-based pirates extend their activities south; numerous commercial vessels have been attacked and hijacked both at anchor and while underway; crews have been robbed and stores or cargoes stolen


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  Tanzania (Dodoma):


  GPS points from Tanzania (Dodoma)

Tumbwatho River Dodoma Region

Nkoanrua Arusha Region

Hurusi Hill Mbeya Region

Gendi Manyara Region

Makumira Arusha Region

Shingwi Zanzibar North Region

Mbiji Zanzibar North Region

Mivumoishirini Pemba North Region




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