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Tonga - unique among Pacific nations - never completely lost its indigenous governance. The archipelagos of "The Friendly Islands" were united into a Polynesian kingdom in 1845. Tonga became a constitutional monarchy in 1875 and a British protectorate in 1900; it withdrew from the protectorate and joined the Commonwealth of Nations in 1970. Tonga remains the only monarchy in the Pacific.


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Economy

Economy - overview
Tonga has a small, open, South Pacific island economy. It has a narrow export base in agricultural goods. Squash, vanilla beans, and yams are the main crops. Agricultural exports, including fish, make up two-thirds of total exports. The country must import a high proportion of its food, mainly from New Zealand. The country remains dependent on external aid and remittances from Tongan communities overseas to offset its trade deficit. Tourism is the second-largest source of hard currency earnings following remittances. Tonga had 39,000 visitors in 2006. The government is emphasizing the development of the private sector, especially the encouragement of investment, and is committing increased funds for health and education. Tonga has a reasonably sound basic infrastructure and well developed social services. High unemployment among the young, a continuing upturn in inflation, pressures for democratic reform, and rising civil service expenditures are major issues facing the government.

Gdp (purchasing power parity) World Ranking: 209
$772.8 million (2011 est.)
$762.4 million (2010 est.)
$750.2 million (2009 est.)
Note Data are in 2011 US dollars

Gdp (official exchange rate)
$439 million (2011 est.)

Gdp - real growth rate World Ranking: 171
1.5% (2011 est.)
1.6% (2010 est.)
0.9% (2009 est.)

Gdp - per capita (ppp) World Ranking: 133
$7,400 (2011 est.)
$7,400 (2010 est.)
$7,300 (2009 est.)
Note Data are in 2011 US dollars

Gdp - composition by sector
Agriculture 20.8%
Industry 18.1%
Services 61.1% (2011 est.)

Labor force World Ranking: 195
39,960 (2007)

Labor force - by occupation
Agriculture 31.8%
Industry 30.6%
Services 37.6% (2003 est.)

Unemployment rate World Ranking: 134
13% (FY03/04 est.)

Population below poverty line
24% (FY03/04)

Household income or consumption by percentage share
Lowest 10% NA%
Highest 10% NA%

Budget
Revenues $117.6 million
Expenditures $117.6 million (2011 est.)

Taxes and other revenues World Ranking: 115
26.8% of GDP (2011 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) World Ranking: 47
0% of GDP (2011 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices) World Ranking: 154
6.6% (2011 est.)
3.6% (2010 est.)

Commercial bank prime lending rate World Ranking: 72
11.37% (31 December 2011 est.)
11.53% (31 December 2010 est.)

Stock of narrow money World Ranking: 186
$50.96 million (31 December 2011 est.)
$54.37 million (31 December 2010 est.)

Stock of broad money World Ranking: 187
$179.7 million (31 December 2011 est.)
$171.8 million (31 December 2010 est.)

Stock of domestic credit World Ranking: 184
$173.4 million (31 December 2011 est.)
$157 million (31 December 2010 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares
$NA

Agriculture - products
Squash, coconuts, copra, bananas, vanilla beans, cocoa, coffee, ginger, black pepper; fish

Industries
Tourism, construction, fishing

Industrial production growth rate World Ranking: 139
1% (2003 est.)

Electricity - production World Ranking: 204
40 million kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - consumption World Ranking: 206
37.2 million kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - exports
0 kWh (2009)

Electricity - imports
0 kWh (2009 est.)

Oil - production World Ranking: 140
0 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Oil - consumption World Ranking: 202
1,000 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Oil - exports World Ranking: 203
0 bbl/day (2009 est.)

Oil - imports World Ranking: 188
1,202 bbl/day (2009 est.)

Oil - proved reserves World Ranking: 201
0 bbl (1 January 2010 est.)

Natural gas - production World Ranking: 136
0 cu m (2009 est.)

Natural gas - consumption World Ranking: 138
0 cu m (2009 est.)

Natural gas - exports World Ranking: 196
0 cu m (2009 est.)

Natural gas - imports World Ranking: 135
0 cu m (2009 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves World Ranking: 136
0 cu m (1 January 2011 est.)

Current account balance World Ranking: 66
-$54.2 million (2011 est.)

Exports World Ranking: 213
$8.4 million (2011 est.)
$8.4 million

Exports - commodities
Squash, fish, vanilla beans, root crops

Exports - partners
Hong Kong 19.9%, Japan 14.6%, US 10.6%, South Korea 10.1%, Fiji 8.9%, NZ 8.6%, Samoa 7.5%, Brazil 5.3%, American Samoa 4.7% (2011)

Imports World Ranking: 207
$139.6 million (2011 est.)
$139.6 million

Imports - commodities
Foodstuffs, machinery and transport equipment, fuels, chemicals

Imports - partners
Fiji 35.4%, NZ 24%, US 10.1%, China 7% (2011)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold World Ranking: 159
$86.8 million (31 December 2011 est.)
$104.5 million

Debt - external World Ranking: 187
$104.6 million (31 December 2010 est.)
$104.5 million (31 December 2009 est.)

Exchange rates
Pa'anga (TOP) per US dollar -
1.729 (2011 est.)
1.906 (2010 est.)

Fiscal year
1 July - 30 June


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  Tonga (Nuku'alofa):


  GPS points from Tonga (Nuku'alofa)

Holeva Ha Apai

Lu Lelau Ha Apai

Homatau Ha Apai

Keetoo Ha Apai

Anahulu Beach Tongatapu

Kaba Vava U

Puleieia Ha Apai

Ha`apai Group Ha Apai




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