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Tonga - unique among Pacific nations - never completely lost its indigenous governance. The archipelagos of "The Friendly Islands" were united into a Polynesian kingdom in 1845. Tonga became a constitutional monarchy in 1875 and a British protectorate in 1900; it withdrew from the protectorate and joined the Commonwealth of Nations in 1970. Tonga remains the only monarchy in the Pacific.


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People And Society

Nationality
Noun Tongan(s)
Adjective Tongan

Ethnic groups
Polynesian, Europeans

Languages
Tongan (official), English (official)

Religions
Christian (Free Wesleyan Church claims over 30,000 adherents)

Population World Ranking: 191
106,146 (July 2012 est.)

Age structure
0-14 years
37.2% (male 20,023/female 19,393)
15-64 years
56.7% (male 30,125/female 29,959)
65 years and over
6.1% (male 2,986/female 3,430) (2011 est.)

Median age
Total 21.6 years
Male 21.2 years
Female 22.1 years (2012 est.)

Population growth rate World Ranking: 177
0.192% (2012 est.)

Birth rate World Ranking: 60
24.7 births/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Death rate World Ranking: 189
4.88 deaths/1,000 population (July 2012 est.)

Net migration rate World Ranking: 216
-17.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Urbanization
Urban population 23% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization
0.8% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Sex ratio
At birth 1.03 male(s)/female
Under 15 years 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over 0.86 male(s)/female
Total population
1.01 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Maternal mortality rate World Ranking: 65
110 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)

Infant mortality rate World Ranking: 127
Total 13.21 deaths/1,000 live births
Male 13.63 deaths/1,000 live births
Female
12.77 deaths/1,000 live births (2012 est.)

Life expectancy at birth World Ranking: 87
Total population 75.38 years
Male 73.98 years
Female 76.83 years (2012 est.)

Total fertility rate World Ranking: 47
3.55 children born/woman (2012 est.)

Health expenditures World Ranking: 98
6.2% of GDP (2009)

Physicians density
0.291 physicians/1,000 population (2002)

Hospital bed density
2.44 beds/1,000 population (2008)

Hiv/aids - adult prevalence rate
NA

Hiv/aids - people living with hiv/aids
NA

Hiv/aids - deaths
NA

Obesity - adult prevalence rate World Ranking: 3
56% (2000)

Education expenditures World Ranking: 107
3.9% of GDP (2004)

Literacy
Definition
Can read and write Tongan and/or English
Total population 98.9%
Male 98.8%
Female 99% (1999 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
Total 14 years
Male 14 years
Female 14 years (2007)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 World Ranking: 91
Total 11.9%
Male 9.9%
Female 15.1% (2003)


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  Tonga (Nuku'alofa):


  GPS points from Tonga (Nuku'alofa)

Tokomololo Tongatapu

Ava Vaha`afonua Ha Apai

`olo`ua Vava U

Mariner Patch Ha Apai

Vai Lahi Vava U

Mo`ungalafa Vava U

Tokolu Vava U

Johnnie Shoal Tongatapu




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