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Rivalry between French and Italian interests in Tunisia culminated in a French invasion in 1881 and the creation of a protectorate. Agitation for independence in the decades following World War I was finally successful in getting the French to recognize Tunisia as an independent state in 1956. The country's first president, Habib BOURGUIBA, established a strict one-party state. He dominated the country for 31 years, repressing Islamic fundamentalism and establishing rights for women unmatched by any other Arab nation. In November 1987, BOURGUIBA was removed from office and replaced by Zine el Abidine BEN ALI in a bloodless coup. Street protests that began in Tunis in December 2010 over high unemployment, corruption, widespread poverty, and high food prices escalated in January 2011, culminating in rioting that led to hundreds of deaths. On 14 January 2011, the same day BEN ALI dismissed the government, he fled the country, and by late January 2011, a "national unity government" was formed. Elections for the new Constituent Assembly were held in late October 2011, and in December it elected human rights activist Moncef MARZOUKI as interim president. The Assembly began drafting a new constitution in February 2012, and is aiming to have it ratified by the end of the year.


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Transportation

Airports World Ranking: 118
29 (2012)

Airports - with paved runways
Total 15
Over 3,047 m 4
2,438 to 3,047 m 6
1,524 to 2,437 m 2
914 to 1,523 m 3 (2012)

Airports - with unpaved runways
Total 14
1,524 to 2,437 m 1
914 to 1,523 m 5
Under 914 m 8 (2012)

Pipelines
Gas 2,386 km; oil 1,323 km; refined products 453 km (2010)

Railways World Ranking: 68
Total 2,165 km
Standard gauge 471 km 1.435-m gauge
Narrow gauge
1,694 km 1.000-m gauge (65 km electrified) (2008)

Roadways World Ranking: 111
Total 19,232 km
Paved
12,655 km (includes 262 km of expressways)
Unpaved 6,577 km (2006)

Merchant marine World Ranking: 116
Total 9
By type
Bulk carrier 1, cargo 2, passenger/cargo 4, roll on/roll off 2 (2010)

Ports and terminals
Bizerte, Gabes, Rades, Sfax, Skhira


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  Tunisia (Tunis):


  GPS points from Tunisia (Tunis)

Jebel Emmbarek Tunisia (general)

Delegation De Monastir Gouvernorat De Monastir

Oued El Angoud Tunisia (general)

Hanshir Al Qussat Tunisia (general)

Ra's Al Wali Gouvernorat De Bizerte

Ras Dimas Al Munastir

Sidi Abd El Kader El Abidat Gouvernorat De Kef

Wadi Ash Shi`ab Gouvernorat De Mahdia




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