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Ukraine was the center of the first eastern Slavic state, Kyivan Rus, which during the 10th and 11th centuries was the largest and most powerful state in Europe. Weakened by internecine quarrels and Mongol invasions, Kyivan Rus was incorporated into the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and eventually into the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The cultural and religious legacy of Kyivan Rus laid the foundation for Ukrainian nationalism through subsequent centuries. A new Ukrainian state, the Cossack Hetmanate, was established during the mid-17th century after an uprising against the Poles. Despite continuous Muscovite pressure, the Hetmanate managed to remain autonomous for well over 100 years. During the latter part of the 18th century, most Ukrainian ethnographic territory was absorbed by the Russian Empire. Following the collapse of czarist Russia in 1917, Ukraine was able to achieve a short-lived period of independence (1917-20), but was reconquered and forced to endure a brutal Soviet rule that engineered two forced famines (1921-22 and 1932-33) in which over 8 million died. In World War II, German and Soviet armies were responsible for some 7 to 8 million more deaths. Although final independence for Ukraine was achieved in 1991 with the dissolution of the USSR, democracy and prosperity remained elusive as the legacy of state control and endemic corruption stalled efforts at economic reform, privatization, and civil liberties. A peaceful mass protest "Orange Revolution" in the closing months of 2004 forced the authorities to overturn a rigged presidential election and to allow a new internationally monitored vote that swept into power a reformist slate under Viktor YUSHCHENKO. Subsequent internal squabbles in the YUSHCHENKO camp allowed his rival Viktor YANUKOVYCH to stage a comeback in parliamentary elections and become prime minister in August of 2006. An early legislative election, brought on by a political crisis in the spring of 2007, saw Yuliya TYMOSHENKO, as head of an "Orange" coalition, installed as a new prime minister in December 2007. Viktor YANUKOVUYCH was elected president in a February 2010 run-off election that observers assessed as meeting most international standards. The following month, the Rada approved a vote of no-confidence prompting Yuliya TYMOSHENKO to resign from her post as prime minister.


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People And Society

Nationality
Noun Ukrainian(s)
Adjective Ukrainian

Ethnic groups
Ukrainian 77.8%, Russian 17.3%, Belarusian 0.6%, Moldovan 0.5%, Crimean Tatar 0.5%, Bulgarian 0.4%, Hungarian 0.3%, Romanian 0.3%, Polish 0.3%, Jewish 0.2%, other 1.8% (2001 census)

Languages
Ukrainian (official) 67%, Russian 24%, other (includes small Romanian-, Polish-, and Hungarian-speaking minorities) 9%

Religions
Ukrainian Orthodox - Kyiv Patriarchate 50.4%, Ukrainian Orthodox - Moscow Patriarchate 26.1%, Ukrainian Greek Catholic 8%, Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox 7.2%, Roman Catholic 2.2%, Protestant 2.2%, Jewish 0.6%, other 3.2% (2006 est.)

Population World Ranking: 30
44,854,065 (July 2012 est.)

Age structure
0-14 years
13.7% (male 3,186,606/female 3,014,069)
15-64 years
70.8% (male 15,282,749/female 16,673,641)
65 years and over
15.5% (male 2,294,777/female 4,682,865) (2011 est.)

Median age
Total 40.1 years
Male 36.9 years
Female 43.3 years (2012 est.)

Population growth rate World Ranking: 221
-0.625% (2012 est.)

Birth rate World Ranking: 197
9.59 births/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Death rate World Ranking: 3
15.76 deaths/1,000 population (July 2012 est.)

Net migration rate World Ranking: 117
-0.08 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Urbanization
Urban population 69% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization
-0.1% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major cities - population
KYIV (capital) 2.779 million; Kharkiv 1.455 million; Dnipropetrovsk 1.013 million; Odesa 1.009 million; Donetsk 971,000 (2009)

Sex ratio
At birth 1.06 male(s)/female
Under 15 years 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over 0.49 male(s)/female
Total population
0.85 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Maternal mortality rate World Ranking: 122
32 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)

Infant mortality rate World Ranking: 156
Total 8.38 deaths/1,000 live births
Male 10.5 deaths/1,000 live births
Female
6.12 deaths/1,000 live births (2012 est.)

Life expectancy at birth World Ranking: 153
Total population 68.74 years
Male 63.07 years
Female 74.77 years (2012 est.)

Total fertility rate World Ranking: 212
1.29 children born/woman (2012 est.)

Health expenditures World Ranking: 82
7% of GDP (2009)

Physicians density
3.125 physicians/1,000 population (2006)

Hospital bed density
8.73 beds/1,000 population (2006)

Hiv/aids - adult prevalence rate World Ranking: 45
1.1% (2009 est.)

Hiv/aids - people living with hiv/aids World Ranking: 17
350,000 (2009 est.)

Hiv/aids - deaths World Ranking: 15
24,000 (2009 est.)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight World Ranking: 93
4.1% (2000)

Education expenditures World Ranking: 50
5.3% of GDP (2007)

Literacy
Definition
Age 15 and over can read and write
Total population 99.7%
Male 99.8%
Female 99.6% (2010 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
Total 15 years
Male 14 years
Female 15 years (2008)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 World Ranking: 76
Total 14.9%
Male 15.2%
Female 14.5% (2005)


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  Ukraine (Kiev):


  GPS points from Ukraine (Kiev)

Skalonovka Kharkivs'ka Oblast'

Tubenkoy Ukraine (general)

Dubnovskiy Rayon Ukraine (general)

Ozerinovka Mykolayivs'ka Oblast'

Berezovka Kharkivs'ka Oblast'

Balka Shirokaya Zaporiz'ka Oblast'

Shlyakhtino Luhans'ka Oblast'

Shengereyevka Poltava




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