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Britain's American colonies broke with the mother country in 1776 and were recognized as the new nation of the United States of America following the Treaty of Paris in 1783. During the 19th and 20th centuries, 37 new states were added to the original 13 as the nation expanded across the North American continent and acquired a number of overseas possessions. The two most traumatic experiences in the nation's history were the Civil War (1861-65), in which a northern Union of states defeated a secessionist Confederacy of 11 southern slave states, and the Great Depression of the 1930s, an economic downturn during which about a quarter of the labor force lost its jobs. Buoyed by victories in World Wars I and II and the end of the Cold War in 1991, the US remains the world's most powerful nation state. Since the end of World War II, the economy has achieved relatively steady growth, low unemployment and inflation, and rapid advances in technology.


People And Society

Nationality
Noun American(s)
Adjective American

Ethnic groups
White 79.96%, black 12.85%, Asian 4.43%, Amerindian and Alaska native 0.97%, native Hawaiian and other Pacific islander 0.18%, two or more races 1.61% (July 2007 estimate)
Note
A separate listing for Hispanic is not included because the US Census Bureau considers Hispanic to mean persons of Spanish/Hispanic/Latino origin including those of Mexican, Cuban, Puerto Rican, Dominican Republic, Spanish, and Central or South American origin living in the US who may be of any race or ethnic group (white, black, Asian, etc.); about 15.1% of the total US population is Hispanic

Languages
English 82.1%, Spanish 10.7%, other Indo-European 3.8%, Asian and Pacific island 2.7%, other 0.7% (2000 census)
Note
Hawaiian is an official language in the state of Hawaii

Religions
Protestant 51.3%, Roman Catholic 23.9%, Mormon 1.7%, other Christian 1.6%, Jewish 1.7%, Buddhist 0.7%, Muslim 0.6%, other or unspecified 2.5%, unaffiliated 12.1%, none 4% (2007 est.)

Population World Ranking: 3
313,847,465 (July 2012 est.)

Age structure
0-14 years
20.1% (male 32,107,900/female 30,781,823)
15-64 years
66.8% (male 104,411,352/female 104,808,064)
65 years and over
13.1% (male 17,745,363/female 23,377,542) (2011 est.)

Median age
Total 37.1 years
Male 35.8 years
Female 38.5 years (2012 est.)

Population growth rate World Ranking: 125
0.899% (2012 est.)

Birth rate World Ranking: 146
13.68 births/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Death rate World Ranking: 87
8.39 deaths/1,000 population (July 2012 est.)

Net migration rate World Ranking: 26
3.62 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Urbanization
Urban population 82% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization
1.2% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major cities - population
New York-Newark 19.3 million; Los Angeles-Long Beach-Santa Ana 12.675 million; Chicago 9.134 million; Miami 5.699 million; WASHINGTON, D.C. (capital) 4.421 million (2009)

Sex ratio
At birth 1.05 male(s)/female
Under 15 years 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over 0.77 male(s)/female
Total population
0.97 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Maternal mortality rate World Ranking: 136
21 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)

Infant mortality rate World Ranking: 174
Total 5.98 deaths/1,000 live births
Male 6.64 deaths/1,000 live births
Female
5.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2012 est.)

Life expectancy at birth World Ranking: 50
Total population 78.49 years
Male 76.05 years
Female 81.05 years (2012 est.)

Total fertility rate World Ranking: 122
2.06 children born/woman (2012 est.)

Health expenditures World Ranking: 2
16.2% of GDP (2009)

Physicians density
2.672 physicians/1,000 population (2004)

Hospital bed density
3.1 beds/1,000 population (2008)

Hiv/aids - adult prevalence rate World Ranking: 64
0.6% (2009 est.)

Hiv/aids - people living with hiv/aids World Ranking: 9
1.2 million (2009 est.)

Hiv/aids - deaths World Ranking: 18
17,000 (2009 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate World Ranking: 6
33.9% (2006)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight World Ranking: 118
1.3% (2002)

Education expenditures World Ranking: 44
5.5% of GDP (2007)

Literacy
Definition
Age 15 and over can read and write
Total population 99%
Male 99%
Female 99% (2003 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
Total 16 years
Male 15 years
Female 17 years (2008)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 World Ranking: 66
Total 17.6%
Male 20.1%
Female 14.9% (2009)


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