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Russia conquered the territory of present-day Uzbekistan in the late 19th century. Stiff resistance to the Red Army after the Bolshevik Revolution was eventually suppressed and a socialist republic established in 1924. During the Soviet era, intensive production of "white gold" (cotton) and grain led to overuse of agrochemicals and the depletion of water supplies, which have left the land degraded and the Aral Sea and certain rivers half dry. Independent since 1991, the country seeks to gradually lessen its dependence on the cotton monoculture by diversifying agricultural production while developing its mineral and petroleum reserves and increasing its manufacturing base. Current concerns include terrorism by Islamic militants, economic stagnation, and the curtailment of human rights and democratization.


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People And Society

Nationality
Noun Uzbekistani
Adjective Uzbekistani

Ethnic groups
Uzbek 80%, Russian 5.5%, Tajik 5%, Kazakh 3%, Karakalpak 2.5%, Tatar 1.5%, other 2.5% (1996 est.)

Languages
Uzbek (official) 74.3%, Russian 14.2%, Tajik 4.4%, other 7.1%

Religions
Muslim 88% (mostly Sunni), Eastern Orthodox 9%, other 3%

Population World Ranking: 44
28,394,180 (July 2012 est.)

Age structure
0-14 years
26.5% (male 3,817,755/female 3,635,142)
15-64 years
68.8% (male 9,620,356/female 9,742,818)
65 years and over
4.7% (male 560,574/female 751,955) (2011 est.)

Median age
Total 26.2 years
Male 25.7 years
Female 26.8 years (2012 est.)

Population growth rate World Ranking: 121
0.94% (2012 est.)

Birth rate World Ranking: 113
17.33 births/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Death rate World Ranking: 178
5.29 deaths/1,000 population (July 2012 est.)

Net migration rate World Ranking: 171
-2.65 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Urbanization
Urban population 36% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization
1.4% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major cities - population
TASHKENT (capital) 2.201 million (2009)

Sex ratio
At birth 1.06 male(s)/female
Under 15 years 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over 0.74 male(s)/female
Total population
0.99 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Maternal mortality rate World Ranking: 126
28 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)

Infant mortality rate World Ranking: 93
Total 21.2 deaths/1,000 live births
Male 25.12 deaths/1,000 live births
Female
17.05 deaths/1,000 live births (2012 est.)

Life expectancy at birth World Ranking: 124
Total population 72.77 years
Male 69.74 years
Female 75.98 years (2012 est.)

Total fertility rate World Ranking: 147
1.86 children born/woman (2012 est.)

Health expenditures World Ranking: 134
5.2% of GDP (2009)

Physicians density
2.617 physicians/1,000 population (2007)

Hospital bed density
4.83 beds/1,000 population (2007)

Hiv/aids - adult prevalence rate World Ranking: 161
0.1% (2009 est.)

Hiv/aids - people living with hiv/aids World Ranking: 69
28,000 (2009 est.)

Hiv/aids - deaths World Ranking: 98
Fewer than 500 (2009 est.)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight World Ranking: 87
4.4% (2006)

Education expenditures
NA

Literacy
Definition
Age 15 and over can read and write
Total population 99.3%
Male 99.6%
Female 99% (2003 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
Total 11 years
Male 12 years
Female 11 years (2009)


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  Uzbekistan (Tashkent):


  GPS points from Uzbekistan (Tashkent)

Il'ichevsk Andijon Viloyati

Kulakly Qashqadaryo Viloyati

Pereval Chash-akba Uzbekistan (general)

Garmily Qashqadaryo Viloyati

Jarqurghon Shahri Surxondaryo Viloyati

Stantsiya Gulistan Uzbekistan (general)

Chardara Buxoro Viloyati

Navoy Navoiy Viloyati




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