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The UK annexed Southern Rhodesia from the [British] South Africa Company in 1923. A 1961 constitution was formulated that favored whites in power. In 1965 the government unilaterally declared its independence, but the UK did not recognize the act and demanded more complete voting rights for the black African majority in the country (then called Rhodesia). UN sanctions and a guerrilla uprising finally led to free elections in 1979 and independence (as Zimbabwe) in 1980. Robert MUGABE, the nation's first prime minister, has been the country's only ruler (as president since 1987) and has dominated the country's political system since independence. His chaotic land redistribution campaign, which began in 2000, caused an exodus of white farmers, crippled the economy, and ushered in widespread shortages of basic commodities. Ignoring international condemnation, MUGABE rigged the 2002 presidential election to ensure his reelection. In April 2005, Harare embarked on Operation Restore Order, ostensibly an urban rationalization program, which resulted in the destruction of the homes or businesses of 700,000 mostly poor supporters of the opposition. President MUGABE in June 2007 instituted price controls on all basic commodities causing panic buying and leaving store shelves empty for months.


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Communications

Telephones - main lines in use World Ranking: 106
379,000 (2009)

Telephones - mobile cellular World Ranking: 88
7.5 million (2009)

Telephone system
General assessment
System was once one of the best in Africa, but now suffers from poor maintenance
Domestic
Consists of microwave radio relay links, open-wire lines, radiotelephone communication stations, fixed wireless local loop installations, and a substantial mobile-cellular network; Internet connection is available in Harare and planned for all major towns and for some of the smaller ones
International
Country code - 263; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat; 2 international digital gateway exchanges (in Harare and Gweru)

Broadcast media
Government owns all local radio and TV stations; foreign shortwave broadcasts and satellite TV are available to those who can afford antennas and receivers; in rural areas, access to TV broadcasts is extremely limited (2007)

Internet country code
.zw

Internet hosts World Ranking: 106
30,650 (2010)

Internet users World Ranking: 84
1.423 million (2009)


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  Zimbabwe (Harare):


  GPS points from Zimbabwe (Harare)

Sangwe Zimbabwe (general)

Clonmoran Zimbabwe (general)

Cawugamahu Pan Zimbabwe (general)

Doro Zimbabwe (general)

Golden Valley Zimbabwe (general)

Matura Zimbabwe (general)

Eloana Bulawayo Province

Longfield School Zimbabwe (general)




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