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The UK annexed Southern Rhodesia from the [British] South Africa Company in 1923. A 1961 constitution was formulated that favored whites in power. In 1965 the government unilaterally declared its independence, but the UK did not recognize the act and demanded more complete voting rights for the black African majority in the country (then called Rhodesia). UN sanctions and a guerrilla uprising finally led to free elections in 1979 and independence (as Zimbabwe) in 1980. Robert MUGABE, the nation's first prime minister, has been the country's only ruler (as president since 1987) and has dominated the country's political system since independence. His chaotic land redistribution campaign, which began in 2000, caused an exodus of white farmers, crippled the economy, and ushered in widespread shortages of basic commodities. Ignoring international condemnation, MUGABE rigged the 2002 presidential election to ensure his reelection. In April 2005, Harare embarked on Operation Restore Order, ostensibly an urban rationalization program, which resulted in the destruction of the homes or businesses of 700,000 mostly poor supporters of the opposition. President MUGABE in June 2007 instituted price controls on all basic commodities causing panic buying and leaving store shelves empty for months.


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Transportation

Airports World Ranking: 29
202 (2012)

Airports - with paved runways
Total 17
Over 3,047 m 3
2,438 to 3,047 m 2
1,524 to 2,437 m 5
914 to 1,523 m 7 (2012)

Airports - with unpaved runways
Total 185
1,524 to 2,437 m 2
914 to 1,523 m 110
Under 914 m 73 (2012)

Pipelines
Refined products 270 km (2010)

Railways World Ranking: 50
Total 3,427 km
Narrow gauge
3,427 km 1.067-m gauge (313 km electrified) (2008)

Roadways World Ranking: 44
Total 97,267 km
Paved 18,481 km
Unpaved 78,786 km (2002)

Waterways
(some navigation possible on Lake Kariba) (2011)

Ports and terminals
Binga, Kariba


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  Zimbabwe (Harare):


  GPS points from Zimbabwe (Harare)

Antoinette Zimbabwe (general)

Chisana Zimbabwe (general)

Songwe Zimbabwe (general)

Gomoringanyani Zimbabwe (general)

Inyangombie River Zimbabwe (general)

Chisanga River Zimbabwe (general)

Marimari Zimbabwe (general)

Zwelabo Dam Zimbabwe (general)




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