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People and Society






The conquest of Vietnam by France began in 1858 and was completed by 1884. It became part of French Indochina in 1887. Vietnam declared independence after World War II, but France continued to rule until its 1954 defeat by Communist forces under Ho Chi MINH. Under the Geneva Accords of 1954, Vietnam was divided into the Communist North and anti-Communist South. US economic and military aid to South Vietnam grew through the 1960s in an attempt to bolster the government, but US armed forces were withdrawn following a cease-fire agreement in 1973. Two years later, North Vietnamese forces overran the South reuniting the country under Communist rule. Despite the return of peace, for over a decade the country experienced little economic growth because of conservative leadership policies, the persecution and mass exodus of individuals - many of them successful South Vietnamese merchants - and growing international isolation. However, since the enactment of Vietnam's "doi moi" (renovation) policy in 1986, Vietnamese authorities have committed to increased economic liberalization and enacted structural reforms needed to modernize the economy and to produce more competitive, export-driven industries. The Communist leaders, however, maintain control on political expression and have resisted outside calls to improve human rights. The country continues to experience small-scale protests from various groups - the vast majority connected to land-use issues, calls for increased political space, and the lack of equitable mechanisms for resolving disputes. Various ethnic minorities, such as the Montagnards of the Central Highlands and the Khmer Krom in the southern delta region, have also held protests.

Administrative divisions (48,028 GPS Maps)

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An Giang

B R a-Vung T u

B c Giang

B c K n

B c Lieu

B c Ninh

Binh nh

Binh Duong

Binh Phu c

Binh Thu n

B n Tre

C Mau

Cao B ng

C n Tho

N ng

c L k

ng Nai

ng Thap

Gia Lai

H Giang

H Nam

Ha N i

H Tay

H Tinh

H Chi Minh

H i Duong

H i Phong

Hoa Binh

Hung Yen

Khanh Hoa

Ki n Giang

Kon Tum

Lai Chau

Lam ng

L o Cai

L ng Son

Long An

Nam nh

Ngh An

Ninh Binh

Ninh Thu n

Phu Th

Phu Yen

Qu ng Binh

Qu ng Nam

Qu ng Ngai

Qu ng Ninh

Qu ng Tr

Soc Trang

Son La

Tay Ninh

Thai Binh

Thai Nguyen

Thanh Hoa

Th a Thien-Hu

Ti n Giang

Tr Vinh

Tuyen Quang

Vietnam (general)

Vinh Long

Vinh Phuc























Yen Bai


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  Vietnam (Hanoi):

  GPS points from Vietnam (Hanoi)

Nui Han Vietnam (general)

Khoi Chao Vietnam (general)

Song Ka Vietnam (general)

Thu Luat (1) Vietnam (general)

Lang Quang Vietnam (general)

Song Giat Vietnam (general)

Plei Lung Pang Vietnam (general)

Koc Pai Vietnam (general)
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