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Colombia was one of the three countries that emerged from the collapse of Gran Colombia in 1830 (the others are Ecuador and Venezuela). A four-decade long conflict between government forces and anti-government insurgent groups, principally the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) heavily funded by the drug trade, escalated during the 1990s. The insurgents lack the military or popular support necessary to overthrow the government, and violence has been decreasing since about 2002. However, insurgents continue attacks against civilians and large areas of the countryside are under guerrilla influence or are contested by security forces. More than 31,000 former paramilitaries had demobilized by the end of 2006 and the United Self Defense Forces of Colombia (AUC) as a formal organization had ceased to function. In the wake of the paramilitary demobilization, emerging criminal groups arose, whose members include some former paramilitaries. The Colombian Government has stepped up efforts to reassert government control throughout the country, and now has a presence in every one of its administrative departments. However, neighboring countries worry about the violence spilling over their borders. In January 2011, Colombia assumed a nonpermanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2011-12 term.


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Transportation

Airports World Ranking: 8
862 (2012)

Airports - with paved runways
Total 121
Over 3,047 m 2
2,438 to 3,047 m 7
1,524 to 2,437 m 41
914 to 1,523 m 55
Under 914 m 16 (2012)

Airports - with unpaved runways
Total 741
Over 3,047 m 1
1,524 to 2,437 m 25
914 to 1,523 m 178
Under 914 m 537 (2012)

Heliports
2 (2012)

Pipelines
Gas 4,801 km; oil 6,334 km; refined products 3,309 km (2010)

Railways World Ranking: 95
Total 874 km
Standard gauge 150 km 1.435-m gauge
Narrow gauge
498 km 0.950-m gauge; 226 km 0.914-m gauge (2008)

Roadways World Ranking: 34
Total 141,374 km (2010)

Waterways World Ranking: 5
24,725 km (18,300 km navigable; the most important waterway, the River Magdalena, of which 1,488 km is navigable, is dredged regularly to ensure the safe passage of cargo vessels and container barges) (2012)

Merchant marine World Ranking: 105
Total 12
By type
Cargo 9, chemical tanker 1, petroleum tanker 2
Registered in other countries
4 (Antigua and Barbuda 1, Panama 2, Portugal 1) (2010)

Ports and terminals
Barranquilla, Buenaventura, Cartagena, Puerto Bolivar, Santa Marta, Turbo
Oil terminals Covenas offshore terminal


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Colombia (Bogota):


GPS points from Colombia (Bogota)

Quebrada Naranajala Departamento De Antioquia

Cerro Petacas Colombia (general)

Espejo Departamento De Norte De Santander

Paramo De Los Dominguez Departamento Del Valle Del Cauca

El Jague Departamento Del Choco

Arroyo La Granja Departamento Del Magdalena

Quebrada La Colorada Departamento De Santander

El Arbolito Departamento Del Quindio




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