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Established as a Belgian colony in 1908, the then-Republic of the Congo gained its independence in 1960, but its early years were marred by political and social instability. Col. Joseph MOBUTU seized power and declared himself president in a November 1965 coup. He subsequently changed his name - to MOBUTU Sese Seko - as well as that of the country - to Zaire. MOBUTU retained his position for 32 years through several sham elections, as well as through brutal force. Ethnic strife and civil war, touched off by a massive inflow of refugees in 1994 from fighting in Rwanda and Burundi, led in May 1997 to the toppling of the MOBUTU regime by a rebellion backed by Rwanda and Uganda and fronted by Laurent KABILA. He renamed the country the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), but in August 1998 his regime was itself challenged by a second insurrection again backed by Rwanda and Uganda. Troops from Angola, Chad, Namibia, Sudan, and Zimbabwe intervened to support KABILA's regime. A cease-fire was signed in July 1999 by the DRC, Congolese armed rebel groups, Angola, Namibia, Rwanda, Uganda, and Zimbabwe but sporadic fighting continued. Laurent KABILA was assassinated in January 2001 and his son, Joseph KABILA, was named head of state. In October 2002, the new president was successful in negotiating the withdrawal of Rwandan forces occupying eastern Congo; two months later, the Pretoria Accord was signed by all remaining warring parties to end the fighting and establish a government of national unity. A transitional government was set up in July 2003; it held a successful constitutional referendum in December 2005 and elections for the presidency, National Assembly, and provincial legislatures took place in 2006. In the most recent national elections, held in November 2011, disputed results allowed Joseph KABILA to be reelected to the presidency .


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Transportation

Airports World Ranking: 30
201 (2012)

Airports - with paved runways
Total 26
Over 3,047 m 4
2,438 to 3,047 m 2
1,524 to 2,437 m 17
914 to 1,523 m 2
Under 914 m 1 (2012)

Airports - with unpaved runways
Total 175
1,524 to 2,437 m 19
914 to 1,523 m 94
Under 914 m 62 (2012)

Heliports
1 (2012)

Pipelines
Gas 37 km; oil 39 km; refined products 756 km (2010)

Railways World Ranking: 43
Total 4,007 km
Narrow gauge
3,882 km 1.067-m gauge (858 km electrified); 125 km 1.000-m gauge (2008)

Roadways World Ranking: 33
Total 153,497 km
Paved 2,794 km
Unpaved 150,703 km (2004)

Waterways World Ranking: 8
15,000 km (including the Congo, its tributaries, and unconnected lakes) (2011)

Merchant marine World Ranking: 147
Total 1
By type Petroleum tanker 1
Foreign-owned
1 (Republic of the Congo 1) (2010)

Ports and terminals
Banana, Boma, Bukavu, Bumba, Goma, Kalemie, Kindu, Kinshasa, Kisangani, Matadi, Mbandaka


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Democratic Republic Of The Congo (Kinshasa):


GPS points from Democratic Republic Of The Congo (Kinshasa)

Mogoro Democratic Republic Of The Congo (general)

Lukula Democratic Republic Of The Congo (general)

Uelela Muloko Democratic Republic Of The Congo (general)

Mokenene Democratic Republic Of The Congo (general)

Kalenda Democratic Republic Of The Congo (general)

Sakadi-kisenge Province Du Kasai-occidental

Lufudi Democratic Republic Of The Congo (general)

Ekutamani Democratic Republic Of The Congo (general)




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