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Founding president and liberation struggle icon Jomo KENYATTA led Kenya from independence in 1963 until his death in 1978, when President Daniel Toroitich arap MOI took power in a constitutional succession. The country was a de facto one-party state from 1969 until 1982 when the ruling Kenya African National Union (KANU) made itself the sole legal party in Kenya. MOI acceded to internal and external pressure for political liberalization in late 1991. The ethnically fractured opposition failed to dislodge KANU from power in elections in 1992 and 1997, which were marred by violence and fraud, but were viewed as having generally reflected the will of the Kenyan people. President MOI stepped down in December 2002 following fair and peaceful elections. Mwai KIBAKI, running as the candidate of the multiethnic, united opposition group, the National Rainbow Coalition (NARC), defeated KANU candidate Uhuru KENYATTA and assumed the presidency following a campaign centered on an anticorruption platform. KIBAKI's NARC coalition splintered in 2005 over a constitutional review process. Government defectors joined with KANU to form a new opposition coalition, the Orange Democratic Movement (ODM), which defeated the government's draft constitution in a popular referendum in November 2005. KIBAKI's reelection in December 2007 brought charges of vote rigging from ODM candidate Raila ODINGA and unleashed two months of violence in which as many as 1,500 people died. UN-sponsored talks in late February 2008 produced a power-sharing accord bringing ODINGA into the government in the restored position of prime minister. Kenya in August 2010 adopted a new constitution that eliminates the role of prime minister after the next presidential election.


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People And Society

Noun Kenyan(s)
Adjective Kenyan

Ethnic groups
Kikuyu 22%, Luhya 14%, Luo 13%, Kalenjin 12%, Kamba 11%, Kisii 6%, Meru 6%, other African 15%, non-African (Asian, European, and Arab) 1%

English (official), Kiswahili (official), numerous indigenous languages

Protestant 45%, Roman Catholic 33%, Muslim 10%, indigenous beliefs 10%, other 2%
A large majority of Kenyans are Christian, but estimates for the percentage of the population that adheres to Islam or indigenous beliefs vary widely

Population World Ranking: 31
43,013,341 (July 2012 est.)
Estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected

Age structure
0-14 years
42.2% (male 8,730,845/female 8,603,270)
15-64 years
55.1% (male 11,373,997/female 11,260,402)
65 years and over
2.7% (male 497,389/female 605,031) (2011 est.)

Median age
Total 18.8 years
Male 18.7 years
Female 18.9 years (2012 est.)

Population growth rate World Ranking: 29
2.444% (2012 est.)

Birth rate World Ranking: 37
31.93 births/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Death rate World Ranking: 122
7.26 deaths/1,000 population (July 2012 est.)

Net migration rate World Ranking: 124
-0.23 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Urban population 22% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization
4.2% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major cities - population
NAIROBI (capital) 3.375 million; Mombassa 966,000 (2009)

Sex ratio
At birth 1.02 male(s)/female
Under 15 years 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over 0.79 male(s)/female
Total population 1 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Maternal mortality rate World Ranking: 29
360 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)

Infant mortality rate World Ranking: 53
Total 43.61 deaths/1,000 live births
Male 48.41 deaths/1,000 live births
38.71 deaths/1,000 live births (2012 est.)

Life expectancy at birth World Ranking: 176
Total population 63.07 years
Male 61.62 years
Female 64.55 years (2012 est.)

Total fertility rate World Ranking: 42
3.98 children born/woman (2012 est.)

Health expenditures World Ranking: 9
12.2% of GDP (2009)

Physicians density
0.14 physicians/1,000 population (2002)

Hospital bed density
1.4 beds/1,000 population (2006)

Hiv/aids - adult prevalence rate World Ranking: 11
6.3% (2009 est.)

Hiv/aids - people living with hiv/aids World Ranking: 4
1.5 million (2009 est.)

Hiv/aids - deaths World Ranking: 6
80,000 (2009 est.)

Major infectious diseases
Degree of risk High
Food or waterborne diseases
Bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
Vectorborne disease Malaria and Rift Valley fever
Water contact disease Schistosomiasis
Animal contact disease Rabies (2009)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight World Ranking: 50
16.5% (2003)

Education expenditures World Ranking: 16
7% of GDP (2006)

Age 15 and over can read and write
Total population 87.4%
Male 90.6%
Female 84.2% (2010 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
Total 11 years
Male 11 years
Female 11 years (2009)


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Kenya (Nairobi):
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GPS points from Kenya (Nairobi)

square Maledi Coast

square Mwalio Coast Province

square Keritunet Rift Valley

square Ainemoi Rift Valley

square Motorogie Rift Valley Province

square Chsyiani Eastern

square Belvue Road Kenya (general)

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