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The Genoese built a fortress on the site of present day Monaco in 1215. The current ruling Grimaldi family first seized temporary control in 1297, and again in 1331, but were not able to permanently secure their holding until 1419. Economic development was spurred in the late 19th century with a railroad linkup to France and the opening of a casino. Since then, the principality's mild climate, splendid scenery, and gambling facilities have made Monaco world famous as a tourist and recreation center.


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People And Society

Nationality
Noun Monegasque(s) or Monacan(s)
Adjective Monegasque or Monacan

Ethnic groups
French 47%, Monegasque 16%, Italian 16%, other 21%

Languages
French (official), English, Italian, Monegasque

Religions
Roman Catholic 90% (official), other 10%

Population World Ranking: 216
30,510 (July 2012 est.)

Age structure
0-14 years
12.3% (male 1,930/female 1,841)
15-64 years
60.8% (male 9,317/female 9,249)
65 years and over
26.9% (male 3,640/female 4,562) (2011 est.)

Median age
Total 49.9 years
Male 48.9 years
Female 51 years (2012 est.)

Population growth rate World Ranking: 197
-0.066% (2012 est.)

Birth rate World Ranking: 221
6.85 births/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Death rate World Ranking: 81
8.52 deaths/1,000 population (July 2012 est.)

Net migration rate World Ranking: 53
1.02 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Urbanization
Urban population
100% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization
0.3% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Sex ratio
At birth 1.04 male(s)/female
Under 15 years 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over 0.81 male(s)/female
Total population
0.95 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Infant mortality rate World Ranking: 222
Total 1.8 deaths/1,000 live births
Male 2.04 deaths/1,000 live births
Female
1.55 deaths/1,000 live births (2012 est.)

Life expectancy at birth World Ranking: 1
Total population 89.68 years
Male 85.74 years
Female 93.77 years (2012 est.)

Total fertility rate World Ranking: 186
1.51 children born/woman (2012 est.)

Health expenditures World Ranking: 145
4.7% of GDP (2009)

Physicians density
5.81 physicians/1,000 population (1995)

Hiv/aids - adult prevalence rate
NA

Hiv/aids - people living with hiv/aids
NA

Hiv/aids - deaths
NA

Education expenditures World Ranking: 161
1.2% of GDP (2004)

Literacy
Definition
Age 15 and over can read and write
Total population 99%
Male 99%
Female 99% (2003 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
Total 18 years
Male 18 years
Female 17 years (2009)


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